Glossary / Health

Fitness Glossary

Abdominal Muscles: A set of eight small muscles located below the chest. These eight muscles help people to bend forwar
Abduction: Movement of a limb away from middle of body, such as bringing arms to shoulder height from hanging d
Abductors: Muscles in your hip that pull the legs apart. Gluteus and minimus pull the legs out away from the ce
Abs: Abbreviation for abdominal muscles. A set of eight small muscles located below the chest. These eigh
Absolute Strength: The highest amount of weight a person can lift in one repetition.
Accommodating Resistance: This is the increase in resistance through the range of motion. Nautilus machines are designed to pr
Acquired Aging: Gaining the characteristics commonly associated with growing older or aging, but are usually caused
Active Stretch: Muscles are stretched using the contraction of the opposing muscle, (antagonist). For an example str
Adduction: Movement of a limb towards the center of the body. When you lower an extended arm from above your he
Adenosine Diphospahate (ADP): ADP is formed when ATP is broken down within the bodies cell furnace, (the mitochondria). This provi
Adhesion: Fibrous band of scar tissue that holds together muscles or other parts that are normally separated.
Aerobic Capacity: Another term for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 Max)
Aerobic Exercise: Exercise designed to enhance circulatory and respiratory system by performing an activity that invol
Agonist: Muscle directly engaged in contraction that is primarily responsible for movement of a body part.
All Natural: Athletes, especially body builders who can avoid using steroids or other banned substances.
All-Or-None: Muscle fibre contracts fully or it does not contract at all.
American Federation Of Women Bodybuilders (AFWB): Group that administers women's amateur bodybuilding in America.
American Physique Committee (APC): Group that administers men's amateur bodybuilding in America.
Amino Acids: Twenty- two basic building blocks of the body that make up proteins.
Anabolic: The term used to describe the body's ability to build muscle tissue.
Anabolic Steroid: Synthetic chemical that mimics the muscle building characteristics of the male hormone testosterone.
Anaerobic Exercise: Activities in which oxygen demands of muscles are so high that they rely upon an internal metabolic
Anaerobic Threshold: The point at which your body switches from using oxygen as its primary source of energy to using sto
Angina Pectoris: Chest or arm pain resulting from reduced oxygen supply to the heart muscle.
Antagonist: Muscle that counteracts the agonist, lengthening when the agonist muscle contracts.
Anti - Catabolism: Supplements such as glutamine, used to prevent breakdown within the body, in order to promote muscle
Antioxidants: Vitamins A, C and E, along with various minerals, which are useful to protect the body from 'free ra
Arm Blaster: Aluminum or fibre glass strip about 5' x 24', supported at waist height by a strap around the neck.
Arteriosclerosis: Hardening of the arteries due to conditions that cause the arterial walls to become thick, hard, and
Assimilation: The process in which foods are utilized and absorbed by the body.
Atrophy: Decrease in size of a muscle caused by the decrease in the size of its cells. This is usually the ca
Babys Butt: Indentation between the two heads of biceps muscles of a very muscular athlete.
Back Cycling: Cutting back on either number of sets, repetitions or amount of weight used during a exercise sessio
Back Muscles: Muscles located on the back part of a upper body. The main use of these muscles is to move the arms
Ballistic Stretching: Form of stretching that involves bouncing and bobbing during the stretch. This is not a recommended
Barbell: A metal bar used for free weights. There are many forms of barbells, including curved, wavy, bench a
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR): The energy requirements necessary for maintenance of life processes such as heart beat, breathing an
Basic Home Equipment: Exercise equipments purchased to be used in homes.
Bi-Angular Motion: Started in the health club and now used at home, the Bi-Angular mechanism guides you through the opt
Biceps: A muscle located at the front of the upper arm. The main function of the biceps are to bend the arm
Bio Availability: The simplicity in which nutrients can be absorbed.
Bio Mechanics: Science concerned with the internal and external forces acting on a human body and the effects produ
Biochemical Reaction: The chemical reactions which take place within the human body.
Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA): A method of measuring your body fat in which you lie on your back while a signal travels from an ele
Biological Value: A measure of protein quality in a given food.
Biomechanics: The study of the mechanics of a part or function of a living body
Blood Pressure: A measurement of how open your blood vessels are. Low numbers mean that your heart doesn’t have to
Body Composition: How much of your body is composed of fat and how much is composed of everything else. Your body comp
Body Mass Index (Bmi): A way of relating your height and weight to estimate how fat you are. You can use a simple formula t
Body Sculpting: A non-aerobic, muscle-toning class, usually focused on core strength.
Bodybuilding: Weight training to change physical appearance.
Bone Density: Soundness of the bones within the body, low density can be a result of osteoporosis.
Bosu: A domed, flexible apparatus that helps to improve balance and can be used in a step aerobics exercis
Buffed: As in a 'finely buffed finish' Good muscle size and definition, looking good.
Buffer: Substances that help reduce lactic acid build-up during strenuous exercise.
Bulking Up: Gaining body weight by adding muscle, body fat or both.
Burn: As in 'going for the burn'. Performing and endurance exercise that works the muscles until lactic ac
Buttocks Muscles: A muscle located in the rear pelvic area of a body. The main use of these muscles is to move the upp
Cable Pulley Column: A common form of exercise equipment found at the gym or home. This is a system where a bar or handle
Calorie: The amount of energy that is needed to raise the temperature of 1 liter of water 1 degree celcius.
Calves: Muscle located on the back part of the lower leg of a human body.
Carbohydrate: Compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen used by the body as a fuel source. Two main group
Carbohydrate Loading: Increase consumption of carbohydrates in liquid or food form normally three days prior to an enduran
Cardiac: Related to heart disorders.
Cardio: A term (short for cardiovascular) that is often used interchangeably with aerobic. Aerobic exercise
Cardiovascular Training: Physical conditioning that strengthens heart and blood vessels, the result of which is an increase i
Carotid Pulse: Pulse located on the both side of the neck, under the jawbone. Used for taking a persons heart rate.
Catabolic: A term used to describe the body's tendency to breakdown muscle tissue.
Catabolism: The breakdown of lean muscle mass, normally as a result of injury, immobilization and poor dieting t
Cellulose: Indigestible fibre in foods.
Chalk: Powder used on hands for secure grip.
Cheating: Related to a person that uses to much weight and swinging the body to help to achieve the end of the
Chelating Agents: Soluble organic compounds that can fit certain metallic ions into their molecular structure.
Chest Muscles: Muscle located between the neck and abdomen. These muscles run over the rib cage in a patern similar
Chi: Otherwise known as 'life energy,' this is the life force that pulses through your body and keeps you
Cholesterol: A fat lipid which has both good and bad implications within the human body. Good being known as HDL
Chronic Disease: A disease or illness that is associated with lifestyle or environment factors as opposed to infectio
Circuit Training: Going quickly from one exercise apparatus to another and doing a prescribed number of exercises or t
Clean: Lifting weight from floor to shoulder in one motion.
Clean And Jerk: Olympic lift where weight is raised from floor to overhead in two movements.
Clean And Snatch: One of two Olympic lifts where weight is raised from floor to overhead at arms length in one motion.
Coenzyme: A substance that works with an enzyme to promote the enzyme's activity.
Complete Proteins: Proteins that contain all the essential amino acids.
Compound Exercise: A group of exercises where more than one joint is extended or flexed. A squat is a great example of
Compound Training: Sometimes called 'giant sets'; doing 3-4 exercises with the same muscle, one after the other, with m
Concentric: Used to describe the part of a repetition in which the muscle group works against gravity, usually c
Concentric Contraction: An isotonic muscle contraction, where a muscle contracts or shortens.
Concentric Muscle Action: When a muscle shortens while contracting against resistance.
Congestive Heart Failure: The inability of the heart muscle to pump the blood at a life sustaining rate.
Cool Down: A period of time used after a fast workout or activity by slowing down the pace to bring the body ba
Core: The abdomen, obliques, lower back, butt, and so on, that form the midsection. Many forms of exercise
Core Conditioning: A non-aerobic, muscle-toning class, usually focused on core strength.
Core Training: A series of exercise that is related to the abdominal area of the body. It strengthens the muscle an
Coronary Circulation: Circulation of blood to the heart muscle associated with the blood carrying capacity of a specific v
Coronary Heart Disease (Chd): Diseases of the heart muscle and the blood vessels that supply it with oxygen, high risk factor for
Coronary Occlusion: The blocking of the coronary blood vessels.
Creatine Phosphate: An inorganic phosphate molecule which binds with ADP and forms ADT. Produced naturally within the bo
Cross-Training: A method of varying your workouts to take your fitness to the next level by adding new forms of trai
Crunches: Kind of abdominal exercise where a person lies on the back and lift the legs on a bench with the han
Curl Bar: Cambered bar designed for more comfortable grip and less forearm strain.
Cutting Up: Reducing body fat and water retention to increase muscle definition.
Dead Lift: One of three power lifting events (other two are squat and bench press). Weight is lifted off floor
Deficiency: A sub optimal level of either one or more nutrients, often resulting in poor health.
Dehydration: Excessive fluid loss from the body, normally from perspiration, urination, evaporation or being sick
Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS): A condition that is often felt after exercise, especially weight orientated, or excessive running. C
Delts: Abbreviation for deltoids, the large triangular muscles of the shoulder which raise the arm away fro
Dip Belt: Large heavy belt worn around hips with a chain at each end that can be attached to a barbell plate o
Diuretic: A substance that aids the increase of urine excreted by the body.
Double: Routine Working out twice a day to allow for shorter, more intense workouts. Usually performed by mo
Drop Sets: A set of exercise where a person starts with a heavy weight and repets to failure. After that, just
Drying Out: Encouraging loss of body fluids by limiting fluid intake, eliminating salt, sweating heavily and/or
Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA): A method of measuring your body fat that also determines where the fat is located on your body, a mo
Dumbbell: A small metal bar consisting of two weights on each side. The weights can be attached or detached. T
Easy Set: Exercise not close to maximum effort, as in a warm-up.
Eccentric Contraction: Muscle lengthens while maintaining tension.
Eccentric Muscle Action: When the muscle lengthens while the contracting against resistance.
Eddy Current: A type of resistance that works electromagnetically with a precision-balanced aluminum disk that spi
Elastic Resistance: Weight training that provides the majority of the resistance at the beginning, when the muscle must
Electrolytes: Capable of conducting electricity in a solution. Used in many body activities, potassium, sodium and
Elliptical Trainer: The hottest trend in cardio machines, which is part stair-climber, part treadmill, part stationary c
Emotional Storm: A traumatic emotional experience that is likely to effect the human organism physiologically.
Empty Calories: A term used to denote food contributing calories that are void of significant food value and nutrien
Endogenous: Naturally occurring body productions.
Endurance: Ability of a muscle to produce force continually over a period of time.
Enzyme: Helpful protein molecules, responsible for a multitude of chemical reactions within the body.
Ergogenic: Something that can increase muscular work capacity.
Ergonomics: The study of designing apparatus to better fit the body and minimize health risks.
Essential Fatty Acids (EFA): Required by the body, however only obtainable from food sources, such as flaxseed oil and safflower
Exercise: Activity done for the purpose of keeping fit and healthy, or sociable in a group form like football.
Exercise Ball: A large plastic ball that is an excellent tool for doing challenging exercises (with or without weig
Exercise Intensity: The amount of energy that a person uses during a workout. This is normally measured by the persons
Exercise Machine: Exercise machines are a category of exercise equipment that is not moved as a complete unit during t
Exercises: A set of moviment repetition to achieve physical fitness.
Extension: Body part (i.e. hand, neck, trunk, etc.) going from a bent to a straight position, as in leg extensi
Fartlek: A type of interval training program that doesn't use an exact measure of time or distance. You just
Fascia: Fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports and separates all muscles and muscle groups. It also
Fast Twitch: Refers to muscle cells that fire quickly and are utilized in anaerobic activities such as sprinting
Fat: Often referred to as lipids, or triglycerides, one of the main food groups, containing nine calories
Fatigue: A lack of energy caused by excessive strain.
Fibrin: The substance that in combination with blood cells forms a blood clot.
Fitness Walking: A faster and more intense walking technique than casual (lifestyle) walking that burns more calories
Flex: Bend or decrease angle of a joint; contract a muscle.
Flexibility: The range of motion or distance you can move a joint through. Stretching is the key to maintaining y
Flexion: Bending in contrast to extending, as in leg flexion.
Flush: Cleanse a muscle by increasing the blood supply to it, removing toxins left in muscle by exertion.
Footprint: A designeted space required for a workout machine.
Forced Repetitions: Assistance to perform additional repetitions of an exercise when muscles can no longer complete move
Forearms: Lower arm muscle, between elbow and wrist.
Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules that possess unpaired electrons. Caused by a number of factors, look at An
Free Style Training: Training all body parts in one workout.
Free Weights: Hand-held equipments such as dumbbell and barbells use to tone muscles of the body.
Free-Form: Amino Acids Structurally unlinked individual amino acids.
Freestyle: The traditional type of swimming movement that uses the front crawl.
Fructose: Often used as a sugar substitute for diabetics, because of its low glycemic index. A healthier optio
Full Spectrum: Amino Acids A supplement that contains all of the essential amino acids.
Glucagon: A hormone responsible for the regulation of blood sugar levels.
Glucose: The basic fuel of the body, the simplest sugar molecule and main sugar found in the blood stream.
Gluteals: Abbreviation for gluteus maximus, medius and minimus; the buttock muscles.
Glycemic Index (GI): A measuring system to find the extent of which various foods raise the blood sugar level. The benchm
Glycogen: The principle form of carbohydrate energy (glucose) stored within the bodies muscles and liver.
Growth Hormone: A naturally released anabolic hormone by the pituitary gland. It promotes muscle growth and the brea
Guided Motion: This is the traditional pressing style of motion found on selectorized machines both at the club and
Hamstring Muscles: Muscle located on the back of the thigh. This muscle is used to move the lower leg to the back of th
Hand Off: Assistance in getting a weight to the starting position for an exercise.
Hard Set: Perform a prescribed number of repetitions of an exercise using maximum effort.
Health And Wellness Promotion: Altering lifestyles and environmental factors with the intent of improving quality of life.
Heart Rate: The number of times your heart beats per minute.
High-Density Lipoproteins (HDL): Known as High-Density Lipoproteins that has a function to remove cholesterol from the blood, carryin
High-Impact Aerobics: A traditional dance-inspired routine that involves jumping or hopping and moves at a slower pace tha
Hormones: Regulators of various biological processes through their ability to control the action of enzymes. M
Horsepower (HP): A measure of power calculated by multiplying torque times speed and dividing by a constant based on
Hyper Kinetic Condition: A disease-illness or health condition caused or contributed by excessive exercise.
Hypertension: High blood pressure.
Hypertrophy: Growth of a muscle as a result of an increase in the size of its cells.
Hypoglycemia: A common occurrence in diabetics, this is low blood sugar levels, resulting in anxiety and fatigue.I
IFBB: International Federation of Bodybuilders, founded in 1946 Group that oversees world-wide mens and wo
Illness Prevention: Altering lifestyles and environmental factors with the intent of preventing or reducing the risk of
Illness Treatment: Altering lifestyles and use of medical procedures to aid in rehabilitation or reduction in symptoms
In-Line Skating: A type of skating in which you wear skates with urethane wheels that enable you to glide, sprint, cu
Incomplete Proteins: Proteins which are low in one or more of the essential amino acids.
Inertia: The tendency of a body at rest to remain at rest or a body in motion to remain in motion unless dist
Intensity: Amount of degree of energy, strength, or force.
Interval Training: A training technique in which you alternate short, fairly intense spurts of exercise with periods of
Iso Kinetic: Exercise Isotonic exercise in which there is ACCOMMODATING RESISTANCE. Also refers to constant speed
Isolation Exercise: Weight lifting exercise that stimulate just a single muscle group. Good for defining a muscle.
Isometric: Muscle contraction in which the muscle tension increase, but without change in the muscle length.
Isometric Exercise: Muscular contraction where muscle maintains a constant length and joints do not move. These exercise
Isotonic: Muscle contraction in which the muscle tension increase, with change in the muscle length.
Isotonic Exercise: Muscular action in which there is a change in length of muscle and weight, keeping tension constant.
Kinesiology: Study of anatomy and mechanics of the human moviment.
Knee Wraps: Elastic strips about 3 1/2' wide used to wrap knees for better support when performing squats, dead
Lactic Acid: A substance caused by anaerobic training of the muscles, a build up prevents continuation of exercis
Lats: Abbreviation for Latissimus dorsi, the large muscles of the back that move the arms downward, backwa
Lean Body Mass: Everything in the body except for fat, including bone, organs, skin, nails and all body tissue inclu
Lifestyle: Individual patterns of your typical life.
Lifestyle Walking: A casual walking technique that is low to moderate intensity and relatively slow paced. Most lifesty
Lift Off: Assistance in getting weight to proper starting position.
Ligament: Strong, fibrous band of connecting tissue connecting two or more bones or cartilage or supporting a
Lipids: All fats and fatty acids.
Lipoprotein: Fat carrying protein in the blood.
Load: The amount of electrical or mechanical power required to operate a machine, usually the power requir
Lock Out: Partial repetition of an exercise by pushing the weight through only last few inches of movement.
Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL): A core of cholesterol surrounded by protein, often referred to as bad cholesterol.
Low-Impact Aerobics: A traditional dance-inspired routine in which you always have one foot on the floor — you don’t
Lower Abs: Abbreviation for abdominal muscles below the navel.
Lumbar: Lower region of you spine, vertebrates L1 to L5. Used for bending and extending the body forward and
Marathon: An organized 26.2-mile race for runners and walkers.
Max: Maximum effort during a workout for one repetition of an exercise.
Maximum Heart Rate: The maximum number of times your heart should beat in a minute without dangerously overexerting your
Medicine Ball: A heavy leather or rubber-covered ball usually six to twelve inches in diameter. Medicine balls are
Meditation: A mental process involving focused attention, or calm awareness, which is also called mindfulness.
Met: The expression of the rate of work (power output) for the human body at rest, or a metabolic equival
Metabolism: The sum of the total chemical reactions in the body at rest or during exercise.
Midsection: Muscles of abdominal area, including upper and lower abdominals, obliques and rectus abdominis muscl
Military Press: A weight training intended for the development of shoulder muscle. Lift the barbell to shoulder heig
Mountain Bike: A fat-tire outdoors bicycle with upright handlebars that is built to withstand rough terrain.
Multi-Gym: A home gym contraption that looks like a bunch of health-club weight machines welded to each other.
Muscle: Tissue consisting of fibres organized into bands or bundles that contract to cause bodily movement.
Muscle Head: Slang for someone whose life is dominated by training.
Muscle Spasm: Sudden, involuntary contraction of muscle or muscle group.
Muscle Tone: Condition in which muscle is in a constant yet slight state of contraction and appears firm.
Muscular Failure: In a strength training program, the point at which your last repetition with weights is so difficult
Muscularity: Another term for definition, denoting a fully delineated muscles and absence of fat.
Myositis: Muscular soreness due to inflammation that often occurs 1-2 days after unaccustomed exercise. Often
Nautilus: Iso kinetic-type exercise machine which attempts to match resistance with user's force.
Negative Reps: One or two partners help you lift a weight up to 50% heavier than you would normally lift to finish
Neutral Grip: A grip on a bar when the palm of each hand face each other.
Non-Locks: Performing an exercise without going through the complete range of motion. For example, doing squat
Nutrients: Components found in foods such as proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins and water, and help to
Obliques: Related to external oblique, the muscle located on each side of abdominal. These are used to flex an
Odd Lifts: Exercises used in competition other than snatch and clean and jerk, such as squats, bench presses, a
Oestrogen: Female sex hormone.
Olympic Lifts: Two movements used in national and international Olympic competitions: the SNATCH and the CLEAN and
Olympic Set: High quality, precision made set of weights used for competition. The bar is approximately 7' long.
Olympic Set: High quality, precision made set of weights used for competition. The bar is approximately 7' long.
Onion Skin: Slang denoting skin with very low percentage of subcutaneous fat, which helps to accentuate muscular
Orthotics: Fitted shoe inserts designed by a podiatrist that correct weight distribution along the foot.
Overload Principle: Used to increase strength in the body, this principle says when you lift a weight more than you are
Overtraining: Excess of exercise resulting in inadequete recovery.
Parasympathetic Nervous System: Branch of the autonomic nervous system that slows the heart rate.
Partial Reps: Performing an exercise without going through a complete range of motion either at the beginning or e
Peak Contraction: Exercising a muscle until it cramps by using shortened movements.
Pecs: Abbreviation for pectorial muscles of the chest.
Perceived Exertion: A self-selected subjective measurement of an exerciser's overall level of intensity, usually describ
Performance Benefit: Improvements in physical fitness as a result of exercise.
Periodization: A method of organizing a strength training workout program into several periods, each lasting about
Peripheral Heart Action (PHA): A system of training where you go from one exercise to another, with little or no rest, preferably a
Peripheral Vascular Disease: Lack of oxygen supply to the working muscles and tissues of the body, resulting from decreased blood
Physical Fitness: Well-being physical condition got through workout, such as muscle strength and endurance, cardiovasc
Pilates: A form of exercise that emphasizes correct form using your body’s core. Pilates is named after its
Plantar Fasciitis: An inflammation of the tough fibrous band of tissue that runs the length of the bottom of your foot.
Plyometric Exercise: A technique that includes specific exercises which encompass a rapid stretch of a muscle eccentrical
Plyometric Exercise: Where muscles are loaded suddenly and stretched, then quickly contracted to produce a movement. Athl
Pose Down: Bodybuilders performing their poses at the same time in a competition, trying to out pose one anothe
Positive: Related to concentric.
Power: Quick movement where the body is propelled either upward or outward; explosive strength; performance
Power Cage: Also known as a power rack, squat cage, or squat rack, it is a piece of equipment used for
Power Lifts: Three movements used in power lifting competition; the squat, bench press and dead lift.
Power Training: Weight training system that uses low repetitions and heavy weights.
Pre-Exhaustion: A technique where an isolation exercise is performed prior to a compound exercise in order to increa
Program: A plan that outlines the exercises, order and details to be followed in order to progress toward ach
Progressive Resistance: Method of training where weight is increased as muscles gain strength and endurance. The backbone of
Pronated Grip: A grip on the bar where the palm of the hand faces down of you during the exercise.
Proper Form: Focus on the proper motion of the exercise and concentrate on the specific muscles being used. Do no
Proper Posture: Maintaining proper posture will greatly reduce chances of injury and maximize exercise benefit. When
Proper Technique: To get the most out of strength training and to reduce the chance of injury, use proper weight train
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF): Stretching exercises used to increase an individuals flexibility.
Protein: A compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen arranged into amino acids linked in a c
Pulse: The number of times your heart beats per minute.
Pumped: Slang meaning the muscles have been made large by increasing blood supply to them through exercise.
Pumping Iron: Phrase that has been in use since the 1950's, but recently greatly popularized. Lifting weights.
Qigong: An element of a t'ai Chi practice that covers many different types of movements that involve using a
Quadriceps: The muscle located on the front of the thigh - upper leg. This muscle group is used to extend the kn
Quads: Abbreviation for quadriceps femoris muscles, muscles on the upper part of the front of the legs, whi
Quality Training: Training just before bodybuilding competition where intervals between sets are drastically reduced t
Range Of Motion: Moving through a complete range of motion (ROM) allows the muscles to stretch before contraction and
Reciprocal Inhibition: Reflex relaxation in a muscle being stretched.
Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA): Recommended portion of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals that should be included
Recovery Heart Rate: Heart rate taken at the end of the exercise. The amount of the time it takes for your heart to recov
Recumbent: Descriptive of a cycle position; the rider is sitting with legs extended in front. Recumbent cycling
Recumbent Bike: A type of stationary bike with a bucket seat that provides back support so that you pedal straight o
Rep Out: When moviment is repeted over and over again until you are not able to perform the rep due to exhaus
Repetition (Rep): One complete motion of an exercise, often used in reference to strength training.
Repitition Maximum (Rm): This is the maximum number of repetitions per set that can be performed at a given resistance with p
Reps: Abbreviation for REPETITIONS.
Rest Interval: Pause between sets of an exercise, which allows muscles to recover partially before beginning next s
Rest Pause Training: Training method where you press out one difficult repetition, then replace bar in stands, then after
Resting Heart Rate: Number of times the heart beats per minute while your body is not phisically active or at rest.
Rice: An acronym that stands for Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation — common treatment methods prescr
Ripped: Slang meaning extreme muscularity.
Road Bike: The traditional type of outdoor bicycle with curved handlebars that is built for speed.
Roid: Slang for ANABOLIC STEROID.
Rolling Stair Climber: A cardiovascular machine that resembles a section of a department-store escalator. A set of stairs r
Rotator Cuff: A group of four tendons in the shoulder area. They conect muscle to the bones. Tendons of the should
Rowing Machine: A cardiovascular machine that increases stamina, upper body endurance, strength, and flexibility by
Self-Powered Alternator: Cardiovascular equipme that has a feature that does not needed to be plugged into a outlet.
Set: Fixed number of repetitions. For example, 10 repetitions may comprise one set.
Shin Splint: A term that describe a pain in the front portion of the lower leg.
Shoulder Muscles: A group of muscles located at the upper arm to the torso of the body. Compised of three heads, front
Slow Twitch: Muscle cells that contract slowly are resistant to fatigue and are utilized in endurance activities
Small Muscle Group Exercise: Single joint movement and isolation exercises (i.e. Bicep curls, tricep pressdowns and leg extension
Smith Machine: A barbell that is constrained to move only vertically upwards and downwards.
Snatch: Olympic lift where weight is lifted from floor to overhead, (with arms extended) in one continuous m
Speed Of Movement: Strength training movements should be slow and controlled. Do not use momentum to complete an exerci
Spinning: A popular group studio cycling program invented by ultra-distance cyclist Johnny G. And licensed by
Spot: Assist if called upon by someone performing an exercise.
Spot Reducing: A popular but false assumption that an individual can 'burn' fat only in desired areas. Fat is not r
Spotter: Person who watches a person closely to see if any help is needed during a specific exercise.
Spotting: Person that stands near by to a person that is working out to see if they need help (the spotter) wh
Sprain: Damage of the ligaments resulted by a forceful movement.
Stair-Climber: A cardiovascular machine that has two foot plates you pump up and down to mimic the action of climbi
Static Stretch: A stretch that is held within the stretched position for several seconds, without movement.
Stationary Bike: A cardiovascular machine that comes in two styles upright bikes and recumbent bikes.
Step Aerobics: A choreographed routine of stepping up and down on a rectangular, square, or circular platform.
Sticking Point: Most difficult part of a movement.
Straight Sets: Groups of repetitions (SETS) interrupted by only brief pauses, (30-90) seconds.
Strain: Occurs from a excessive effort. Tear or rip of the muscle.
Strength: Amount of force a muscle or muscle group can exert against resistance.
Strength Training: Process of exercising a muscle using resistance weight training to increase muscular strenght.
Stretch Marks: Tears (slight scars) in skin caused if muscle or fat tissue has expanded in volume faster than the s
Stretches: Stretches are positions that extend, and temporarily hold one's limbs or body and cause muscles to b
Striations: Grooves or ridge marks seen under the skin, the ultimate degree of muscle definition.
Stride Frequency: The number of strides that a runner takes over a certain time period.
Stroke: A condition which occurs from insufficient oxygen supply to the brain.
Subcutaneous Fat: Subcutaneous fat is found just beneath the skin as opposed to visceral fat which is found in the per
Super Set: Two or more exercise in a row, then a rest break and then keep going until finish the sets to be don
Supinated Grip: A grip on a bar where the palm and forearm are faced towards you.
Swiss Ball: An inflatable rubber ball usually two to three feet in diameter (60-90cm) used for support during ex
Sympathetic Nervous System: Part of the autonomic nervous system that prepares the body for activity by speeding up the heart ra
Tai Chi: An ancient martial art focusing on smooth, slow movements that cultivate inward focus and free energ
Target Heart Rate Zone: The number of heartbeats per minute reflecting the exercise intensity that gains the maximum trainin
Telemetry: A wireless telemetry system consists of a wireless chest strap that transmits heart rate information
Tendon: A band or cord of strong, fibrous tissue that connects muscle to the bone.
Testosterone: Principle male hormone that accelerates tissue growth and stimulates blood flow.
Thick Skin: Smooth skin caused by too much fatty tissue between the layers of muscle and beneath the skin.
Time Dependant Ageing: The loss of function resulting from growing old.
Torque: The twisting force at the motor shaft that drives the rollers on a treadmill and pulls the belt. The
Total Body Workout: Total body workouts, like on Life Fitness total-body elliptical cross-trainers, involve exercising a
Tracking: An adjustment or design consideration that is intended to keep the belt centered on the treadmill. S
Training Effect: Increase in functional capacity of muscles as result of increased (overload) placed upon them.
Training Straps: Strap used around the wrist and the remaining material is wrapped around the weight lifting bar to a
Training Straps: Cotton or leather straps around wrists, then under and over a bar held by clenched hands to aid in c
Training To Failure: Continuing a set until it is impossible to complete another rep without assistance.
Traps: Abbreviation for trapezius muscles, the largest muscle of the back and neck that draws the head back
Treadmill: A popular choice for a cardiovascular machine in a home gym if you enjoy fitness walking and jogging
Tri Sets: Alternating back and forth between three exercises until a prescribed number of sets is completed.
Triceps: Muscle located on the outside and back part of the upper arm.
Trigger Point: An irritable spot usually found in soft tissue injuries, such as a knot within the muscle.
Trimming Down: To gain hard muscular appearance by losing body fat.
Universal Machine: One of several types of machines where weights are on tracks or rails and lifted by levers or pulley
Upper Abs: Abbreviation for abdominal muscles above the navel.
Upright Bike: The traditional kind of stationary bike, which resembles a regular bicycle.
Variable Resistance: Strength training equipment where the machine varies amount of weight being lifted to match strength
Vascularity: Increase in size and number of observable veins. Highly desirable in bodybuilding.
Vo2 Max: The maximum amount of oxygen a person can utilize per minute of work. Often written down as an evalu
Walk-Run: A workout in which you alternate walking and running. By sprinkling running intervals throughout you
Warm Up: Light gradual exercises performed to get the body ready for physical activity, normally a slower ver
Water Aerobics: Aerobics classes that do traditional workouts in waist- to neck-high water in a swimming pool. The r
Weight Machines: Stationary equipment mostly found at gyms that are easy to use and help you to safely and quickly ad
Weight Training Belt: Thick leather belt used to support lower back. Used while doing squats, military presses, dead lifts
Weight-Bearing Exercise: A type of exercise in which your skeleton is supporting any sort of weight, as it does when you walk
Wushu: The "martial art" or traditional self-defense activities practiced with or without weapons (includes
Yin And Yang: The terms for opposites that are opposing yet complementary. A concept used throughout all of t’ai
Yoga: A series of poses (known as asanas) that you hold from a few seconds to several minutes. The moves

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