Glossary / Health

Vitamins Glossary

Acetyl Hexapeptide (AH3): Used as ingredient in anti-aging cosmetics, relaxes facial muscle contractions and helps smoothen wr
Acetylcholine: A chemical involved in the transmission of nerve impulses.
Acrodermatitis Enteropathica: An inherited zinc deficiency disorder in infants.
Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands positioned above the kidneys, which are responsible for production of stress hormon
Adrenaline: A stress hormone which aids in the release of stored sugar in the liver, increased muscle contractio
Aerobic Exercise: Exercise that requires additional effort by the heart and lungs to meet the increased demand by the
Aldosterone: An adrenal hormone that increases the reabsorption of sodium and excretion of potassium.
Allergen: A substance that provokes an allergic response.
Alpha Hydroxy Acids (AHAs): Water soluble compounds used in chemical peels and skin care products like moisturizers, cleansers,
Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA): Antioxidant increasing the production of glutathione and boosting toxic substances dissolving in the
Amino Acids: The building blocks that make up proteins. Humans need 20 different amino acids to function properly
Aminophylline: Active ingredient in Epidril, Aminophylline has been used for many years as an asthma medication. So
Analgesic: A substance that relieves pain.
Anesthetic: A substance that causes loss of sensation.
Antacid: A substance that neutralizes stomach acid.
Antibiotic: A substance that inhibits or destroys susceptible microorganisms, particularly bacteria.
Antibody: A blood protein produced by the immune system in response to a foreign organism or substance.
Anticonvulsant: A substance that prevents or relieves convulsions.
Antigen: A foreign substance that causes the body to produce antibodies.
Antihistamine: A substance that counteracts the effects of histamine.
Antioxidants: Substances and vitamins used in cosmetic products for their inhibiting properties, preventing oxidat
Arginine: An amino acid.
ATP: Adenosine triphosphate. An energy storage molecule.
Avocado: Fruit reputed to act as a stimulator of soluble collagen content in the skin, rich in fats, enzymes
Avocado Oil: Oil extracted from the avocado fruit, pressed and refined, very rich in Vitamin A, B1, B2, D and E,
Beriberi: Thiamin deficiency disease.
Beta Hydroxy Acids (BHA): Lipid soluble substances used in acne therapy for oily skin due to their exfoliating properties and
Bioavailability: The amount of a substance such as a vitamin or mineral that is available to a target tissue after ad
Bioflavanoid: A biologically active plant compound thought to enhance the activity of vitamin C and exert antioxid
Biotin: Vitamin part of the B-complex group and responsible for making of fatty acids, it helps in the forma
Botanicals: Substances obtained from plants and used in food supplements, personal care products, or pharmaceuti
Calcitonin: A hormone that reduces the release of calcium from bone thus lowering blood calcium concentration
Camellia Sinensis: Also known as See Green Tea Extract. Extract rich in bioflavonoids, especially polyphenol, reputed f
Camphor: Substance with antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and booster properties, a common ingredient of after su
Candida Albicans: A fungus that can cause an infection know as yeast infection or 'thrush'
Capillaries: Tiny blood vessels that connect arteries and veins that allow the exchange of nutrients and wastes b
Carbohydrates: An energy-producing organic compound composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
Carcinogen: A substance that causes cancer.
Carotene: A plant pigment that is converted to vitamin A in the body and which also has antioxidant properties
Cation: An positively charged ion.
Celiac Disease: A metabolic disease that is characterised by sensitivity to wheat, protein and gluten.
Cell: A very small organic unit that is composed of cytoplasm and a nucleus enclosed in a cell membrane.
Cellulose: An indigestible carbohydrate found in plant cell walls.
Ceramides: Substance that keeps skin moisturized, secreted by human body or synthetically, used in hair and ski
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF): The fluid that flows through and protects the brain and spinal cranal.
Ceruloplasmin: A copper-containing enzyme
Chamomile: Plant with calming, soothing, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidation properties, ingredient in many cr
Chamomile Oil: Extracted from chamomile flowers by steam distillation, two chamomile oil types: Roman chamomile oil
Chelation: A combiation of a mineral with a larger molecule.
Chlorophyll: A green pigment found in plant tissues.
Cholesterol: A type of fat found in animal foods and produced by the liver.
Coenzyme: A molecule that works with an enzyme to enable it to fulfil its function in the body.
Comlete Protein: A source of protein that supplies all eight essential amino acids.
Complex Carbohydrate: Carbohydrates such as starch and cellulose that contain more than ten linked glucose units.
Copper Peptide: Compound consisting of a peptide (small fragment of protein) and copper atom, known to benefit in ti
Cruciferous: Crossed-shaped. Used to refer to a group of vegetables that include broccili, cabbage and cauliflowe
Cytochromes: Protenis involed in the transport of electrons and associated with energy production.
Dah: Cosmetic product destined to artificially tan skin diminishing, thus, risks of sunburn and others, i
Daily Value: Found on food and drink nutrition labels, this number tells you the percentage of the recommended di
Dietary Reference Intake (DRI): A new set of dietary guidelines that provide sets of measures for each nutrient, including Adequate
Diuretic: A substance that increases the formation and excretion of urine.
Dmae: Full chemical name is dimethyl-amino-ethanol, natural substance facilitating the synthesis of a neur
Docosahexaenoic Acid: An omega-3 fatty acid.
Dopamine: A chemical involed in the transmission of nerve impulses.
Eicosapentaenoic Acid: An omega-3 fatty acid found in fish oils.
Elastin: Protein secreted by human body, allowing tissues to recover their normal shape after contractions or
Electrolyte: An element or compound that, when dissolved in water, dissociates into positive and negative ions an
Endorphin: A neurotransmitter-like substance that reduces pain.
Enteric Coated: A coating added to some vitamins and drugs which stops them from being broken down by stomach juices
Enzyme: A protein produced by living organisms that catalyzes chemical reactions.
Epidemiology: The study of distribution, occurrence and cause of disease in humans. An epidemiological study is an
Epidril: Epidril is the given name for the combination of aminophylline within a flattening compound that is
Erythrulose: Rose carbohydrate, used singularly or in combination with DHA in self-tanning cosmetics, in contact
Essential Nutrients: Nutrients which must be supplied in the diet as they cannot be made in the body in the quantities re
Estimated Average Requirements (EAR): The nutrient intake value that is estimated to reach the requirements in 50 per cent of people in a
Fat Soluble: Fat-soluble vitamins, such as A, D, E, and K, are absorbed by the body with dietary fats. Your body
Fatty Acid: A fat-soluble organic acid.
Ferritin: An iron compound formed in the intestine and stored in the liver, spleen and bone marrow.
Ferrous: A form of iron.
Fiber: The indigestible residue found mainly in fruits, vegetables and cereals.
Fortify: To increase a food or drink's nutritional value by adding vitamins, minerals, or other substances. F
Free Radicals: An atom or molecule with at least one unpaired electron, making it unstable and reactive. When free
Fructose: A simple carbohydrate sometimes known as fruit sugar.
Gamma Amino Butyric Acid (GABA): Amino acid classified as an important inhibitory neurotransmitter, stimulating relaxation and sleep,
Gamma Linolenic Acid (GLA): Essential fatty acid contained especially by plant-extracted oils, useful in normal brain function,
Glucose: A simple sugar which is a major source of energy in the human body.
Glucose Tolerance Factor: A compound containing chromium that helps in blood sugar regulation.
Glutathione Peroxidase: An antioxidant enzyme.
Gluten: An insoluble protein found in wheat.
Glycogen: A carbohydrate formed from glucose and the main form of stored energy in animal cells.
Glycolic Acid: Also known as hydroxyacetic acid, substance with exfoliating properties, used in cosmetic abrasive p
Glycoprotein: A compound containing a protein and a carbohydrate.
Gram (G): A unit of weight measurement. 100 g is equal to 3.53 ounces. One ounce is equal to 28.35 g.
Hemoglobin: An iron-containing protein that carries oxygen in the blood.
Herb: Herbs are plants used as flavorings in cooking, but herbs can also be used as supplements for health
Hesperidin: A bioflavonoid.
High Density Lipoprotein (HDL): A protein made in the liver which is responsible for transporting cholesterol and other lipids from
Histamine: A compound found in all cells and released in allergic and inflammatory reactions.
Homocysteine: A product of protein breakdown that is considered to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascula
Honey: Disturbances, burn marks, ulcers, sore throat etc. it works as a preserving agent and antioxidant.
Hyaluronic Acid: Also known as Hyaluronan or, simply, HA, component of the connective tissue, its main function is to
Hydrochloric Acid: Stomach acid.
Hydrolyzed Ascorbic Acid: Substance deeply absorbed into skin cells stimulating collagen synthesis, it works as a powerful ant
Hydroquinone: White substance with crystalline content, used as bleaching agent in skin care treatments, creams an
Hydroxy Acids: Substances penetrating the epidermis and upper dermis aiming to slough dead skin cells, used as anti
Idebenone: Synthetic variant of Coenzyme Q10, cerebral stimulant increasing brain energy levels, works as a rej
Insulin: A hormone that is released by the pancreas that regulates the metabolism of glucose.
Interferon: A protein produced when cells are exposed to a virus or other foreign genetic material which protect
Kilogram (Kg): Unit of measurement of mass. 1 kilogram is equivalent to 2.2 pounds.
Kilojoule (Kj): A measurement of the energy in food. 1 calorie is equal to 4.2 kilojoules.
L-Asccancer Forming Agent: Also known as Orbic Acid. Unstable compound chemically known as L-xyloascorbic acid or short, AsA, m
Legumes: Dried beans and peas.
Leukotrienes: Compounds produced by leucocytes that produce allergic and inflammatory reactions.
Linolenic Acid: An essential fatty acid.
Lipoprotein: A type of protein molecule that contains a lipid.
Lipoprotein (A): A lipoprotein considered to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
Liter: A unit of measurement of liquid.
Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL): A blood protein that delivers fats to body tissue.
Lycopene: A carotenoid pigment.
Lymph: A fluid produced in organs and tissues that circulates through the lymphatic vessels and eventually
Lysine: An amino acid.
Magnesium Oxide Crystals: Chemical compound with crystalline structure used in abrasive treatments of the skin for dead skin c
Megadose: Supplements that provide more than 100% of the daily value of the body's required vitamins and miner
Methionine: An amino acid.
Micronutrients: The name given to vitamins and minerals because your body needs them in small amounts. Micronutrient
Milligram: One thousandth of a gram.
Milliliter: One thousandth of a liter.
Mineral: An inorganic substance occurring naturally in the earth's crust which has a characteristic chemical
Mineralization: The addition of any mineral to the body.
Multivitamin: A pill, beverage, or other substance containing more than one vitamin.
Myoglobin: An iron containing molecule that stores oxygen in the tissues.
N-6 Furfuryladenine: Also known as Kinetin.
Nitrosamine: Potentially carcinogenic compounds formed by the reactions of nitrites with amines or amides normall
Noradrenaline: Also known as norepinephrine. A chemical involved in the transmission of nerve impulses.
Nucleic Acids: Chemical compounds found in plant and animal cells which are involved in the transmission of genetic
O2: Gas with multiple chemical and medical applicability, in the cosmetic industry, O2 enrichment appear
Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Fatty acids which may have health benefits including protection against heart disease, asthma, cance
Oxalate: A compound found in plants that binds to minerals such as calcium and reduces their absorption.
Oxidation: A chemical reaction in which oxygen combines with a substance, changing or destroying its normal fun
Pal-Kttks: Chemically known as palmitoyl-pentapepetide 3, cosmetic active ingredient derived from a modified ch
Peptides: Ts. compound consisting of amino acids chemically linked together by peptide collagen levels, work a
Phytate: A compound found in plant fibers that binds to minerals such as calcium, iron and zinc and prevents
Phyto-Chemical Concentrates: Chemical constituents of plants part of its defense system, others than proteins, fats, carbohydrate
Phytochemical: A plant compound that has health-promoting properties.
Phytochemicals: Health-protecting compounds found in fruits, vegetables, and other plants. Phytochemicals (sometimes
Phytoestrogen: A plant compound with estrogen-like activity.
Polyunsaturated Fat: A fat in which there are two or more links in the chain of carbon atoms that can be opened to accept
Precursor: A substance used as a building block for another substance.
Prenatal Vitamins: Specially formulated multivitamins that ensure a pregnant woman gets enough essential micronutrients
Pro-Endorphins: Protein compound releasing muscle micro-tensions and inhibiting fine lines by blocking nerve impulse
Prolactin: A female hormone involved in milk production.
Prostaglandin: A hormone-like compound with many affects including effects on the secretion of hormones and enzymes
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): Recommended dietary allowance. The amount of a nutrient necessary to prevent deficiency symptoms (US
Recommended Dietary Intake (RDI): Recommended dietary intake. The amount of a nutrient necessary to prevent deficiency symptoms (Austr
Retinol: Fat-soluble antioxidant vitamin, the dietary form of vitamin A, plays an important part in vision de
Ribonucleic Acit (RNA): A substance in the nucleus of a cell which carries genetic information.
Salicylic Acid: Organic carboxylic acid with crystalline configuration also known as Beta Hydroxy Acid (BHA), used a
Simple Carbohydrate: A type of carbohydrate, for example lactose, fructose and glucose.
Sorbitol: A by-product of glucose metabolism which, in diabetics, can accumulate and lead to complications.
Soy: Plant rich in protein, often replaces animal-based foods, soy extracts are reputed for their rejuven
Steroid: Any fat-soluble organic substance with a certain basic chemical structure. Several different hormone
Supplements: Vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other substances taken orally and meant to correct deficiencies in the
Topical: Relating to the surface of the body.
Topical Muscle Relaxers (TMRs): Compounds supposedly working on the neurotransmitters responsible for muscle contraction, their acti
Trace Element: An element essential for human health in minute quantities.
Trans Fatty Acids: A type of fat formed when unsaturated vegetables oils are hydrogenated. These forms are more stable
Transferrin: A protein involved in iron transport.
Tretinoin: Also known as All-Trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA).
Tryptophan: An amino acid that can be converted to niacin and serotonin.
U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP): A nonprofit authority that sets standards and certifies supplements that meet certain quality, stren
Ubiquinone Idebenone: Two of the most effective antioxidants on the cosmetic market, fight free radicals in the environmen
Vitamin: An organic compound essential in small quantities for normal body function. With few exceptions, vit
Vitamin A (Retinol): Skin nutrient essential in maintaining and repairing derma structure, used in skin care products des
Vitamin B: Vitamin complex group providing energy to the body by conversing glucose from carbohydrates, maintai
Vitamin B1: Also known as Thiamine, helps metabolism transform sugar into energy, essential to eliminate stress
Vitamin B12: Plays an important part in the cellular reproductive process, essential for the bone marrow and nerv
Vitamin B2: Also known as Riboflavin. Plays and important part in the metabolism of fats, proteins and carbohydr
Vitamin B3: Also known as Niacin. Synthesizes sex hormones and helps nervous system, stimulates blood flow, decr
Vitamin B6: Also known as Pyridoxine. Also known as Pyridoxine, essential role in the metabolism of unsaturated
Vitamin C: Water-soluble vitamin with antioxidant and preservative properties, stimulates immune function, help
Vitamin E: Vitamin belonging to the tocopherols group, essential in cellular respiration of the muscles, works
Vitamins: Naturally found in plants and animals, vitamins are vital to growth, energy, and nerve function. The
Water-Soluble: Water-soluble vitamins like B-6, C, and folic acid are easily absorbed by the body. Your body uses t
Zinc Oxide: Mineral essential to human nutrition, helps the body produce energy, maintains the cell membrane sta