Science / Biology / Lithosphere: The solid outer layer of the Earth; includes both the land area and the land beneath the oceans and other water bodies.


Science / Biology / Pangaea: The name proposed by German meteorologist Alfred Wegener for a supercontinent that existed at the end of the Paleozoic Era and consisted of all the Earths landmasses. MORE


Science / Weather / Geosphere: Considered the solid portions of the earth, including the hydrosphere and the lithosphere, as opposed to the atmosphere, which lies above it. At their conjunction is the biosphere. MORE

Magma Chamber

Science / Geology / Magma Chamber: A full or emptied magma reservoir in the shallow portion of the lithosphere. MORE


Science / Geology / Asthenosphere: A portion of the upper mantle that is directly below the lithosphere. A zone of low strength in the upper mantle defines the top of the asthenosphere. This weak zone allows the plates of the lithosphe MORE


Science / Biology / Gaia: A hypothetical superorganism composed of the Earths four spheres: the biosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and atmosphere. MORE

Lithospheric Plate

Science / Geology / Lithospheric Plate: A large slab of the lithosphere that can be moved by convection current motion within the mantle. MORE