Science / Chemistry / Fermentation: A class of biochemical reactions that break down complex organic molecules (such as carbohydrates) into simpler materials (such as ethanol, carbon dioxide, and water). Fermentation reactions are catalyzed by enzymes.

Alcoholic Fermentation

Life Style / Wine / Alcoholic Fermentation: The action of yeast upon sugar results in its conversion to ethyl alcohol, with carbon dioxide as a by-product. Fermentation will often start naturally with yeasts on the grapes, but cultured yeasts m MORE

Malolactic Fermentation

Life Style / Wine / Malolactic Fermentation: This is completely separate from the alcoholic fermentation, which results from the action of yeast upon sugar, producing alcohol. The malolactic fermentation, which is a bacterial process, results in MORE

Sulphur (SO2 )

Life Style / Wine / Sulphur (SO2 ): An anti-oxidant used in making most wines; the fermentation process creates minute natural amounts. MORE


Life Style / Wine / Sulphur: This is an important element in winemaking, with a wide variety of uses, often as part of the compound sulphur dioxide. It is widely used in the vineyard as a prophylactic for Oidium, whereas in the w MORE

Sugar Ripeness

Life Style / Wine / Sugar Ripeness: When the grapes reach a certain sugar concentration, sufficient for alcoholic fermentation and meeting the demands of the winemaker, this is sugar ripeness. It is distinct from physiological ripeness MORE

Tartrate Crystals

Life Style / Wine / Tartrate Crystals: During fermentation tartaric acid may be converted into potassium hydrogen tartrate, formed through its reaction with potassium. This compound may crystallise, when conditions are cold, to form small MORE