Water Hardness

Science / Chemistry / Water Hardness: Hard water is water contaminated with compounds of calcium and magnesium. Dissolved iron, manganese, and strontium compounds can also contribute to the 'total hardness' of the water, which is usually expressed as ppm caco3. Water with a hardness over 80 ppm caco3 is often treated with water softeners, since hard water produces scale in hot water pipes and boilers and lowers the effectiveness of detergents.

Other Words for Water

Water Noun Synonyms: H2O, distilled water, tap water, drinking-water, bottled water, spa water, still water, soda (water), effervescent water, mineral water, sea water, salt water, ditch-water, dishwater, bath-water, branch water, Adam's ale, Latin a
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Temporary Hardness

Science / Chemistry / Temporary Hardness: The component of total water hardness that can be removed by boiling the water. Ca(HCO3)2 and Mg(HCO3)2_ are responsible for temporary hardness. MORE

Carbonate Hardness

Science / Chemistry / Carbonate Hardness: Water hardness due to the presence of calcium and magnesium carbonates and bicarbonates. The 'noncarbonate hardness' is due mostly to calcium and magnesium sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates. MORE

Water Softener

Science / Chemistry / Water Softener: A material that lowers water hardness when dissolved in water. For example, sodium carbonate ('washing soda') softens water by precipitating Ca2+ ions as caco3. Zeolites soften water by exchanging Ca2 MORE

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