Science / Periodic Table of Elements / Bromine (Br): Atomic number: 35, Atomic mass: 79.904 g.mol -1, Electronegativity: 2.8, Density: 3.1 g.cm-3 at 20°C, Melting point: - 7.2 °C, Boiling point: 58.8 °C, Vanderwaals radius: 0.165 nm, Ionic radius: 0.195 nm (-1), Isotopes: 10, Electronic shell: [ Ar ] 3d10 4s2 4p5, Energy of first ionisation: 1142.7 kJ.mol -1, Standard potential: 1.08 V, Discovered by: Anthoine Balard in 1826. At ambient temperature bromine is a brownish-red liquid. It has a similarly colored vapor with an offensive and suffocating odor. It is the only nonmetallic element that is liquid under ordinary conditions, it evaporates easily at standard temperature and pressures in a red vapor that has a strong disagreeable odor resembling that of chlorine. Bromine is less active chemically than chlorine and fluorine but is more active than iodine; its compounds are similar to those of the other halogens. Bromine is soluble in organic solvents and in water. Applications: Bromine is used in industry to make organobromo compounds. A major one was dibromoethane an agent for leaded gasoline, before they were largely phased out due to environmental considerations. Other organobromines are used as insecticides, in fire extinguishers and to make pharmaceuticals. Bromine is used in making fumigants, dyes, flameproofing agents, water purification compounds, sanitizes, medicinals, agents for photography and in brominates vegetable oil, used as emulsifier in many citrus-flavoured solft drinks. Bromine in the environment: Bromine is a naturally occurring element that can be found in many inorganic substances. Humans however, have many years ago started the introduction of organic bromines in the environment. These are all compounds that are not natural and can cause serious harm to human health and the environment. In diffuse crustal rock bromine naturally occurs as bromide salts. Bromine salts have accumulated in sea water (85 ppm), from which bromine is extracted. World production of bromine is more than 300.000 tonnes per year; the three main producing countries are US, Istrael and the UK. In this last case it is extracted from sea water at a plant on the coast of Anglesey, Wales.
Science / Periodic Table of Elements / Bromine (Br): Atomic number: 35, Atomic mass: 79.904 g.mol -1, Electronegativity: 2.8, Density: 3.1 g.cm-3 at 20°C, Melting point: - 7.2 °C, Boiling point: 58.8 °C, Vanderwaals radius: 0.165 nm, Ionic radius: 0. MORE