Science / Periodic Table of Elements / Lithium (Li): Atomic number: 3, Atomic mass: 6.941 g.mol -1, Electronegativity: 1.0, Density: 0.53 g.cm -3 at 20 Â°C, Melting point: 180.5 Â°C, Boiling point: 1342 Â°C, Vanderwaals radius: 0.145 nm, Ionic radius: 0.06 nm, Isotopes: 2, Electronic shell: 1s22s1 or [He] 2s1, Energy of first ionisation: 520.1 kJ.mol -1, Standard potential: - 3.02 V, Discovered by: Johann Arfvedson in 1817. Lithium is the first of the alkalis in the periodic table. In nature itâ€™s found like a mixture of the isotopes Li6 and Li7. Itâ€™s the lightest solid metal, itâ€™s soft, silvery-white, with a low melting point and reactive. Many of its physical and chemical properties are more similar to those of the alkaline earth metals than to those of its own group. Between the most significant properties of lithium we find its high specific heat (calorific capacity), the huge temperature interval in the liquid state, high termic conductivity, low viscosity and very low density. Metallic lithium is soluble in short chain aliphatic amines, like etilamine. Itâ€™s insoluble in hydrocarbons. Lithium takes part in a huge number of reactions, with organic reactants as well as with inorganic reactants. It reacts with oxygen to form monoxide and peroxide. Itâ€™s the only alkaline metal that reacts with nitrogen at ambient temperature to produce a black nitrure. It reacts easily with hydrogen at almost 500??C (930??F) to form lithium hydride. Metallic lithiumâ€™s reaction with water is extremely vigorous. Lithium reacts directly with the carbon to produce the carbure. It binds easily with halogens and forms halogenures with light emission. Although it doesnâ€™t react with parafinic hydrocarbons, it experiments addition reactions with alquenes substituted by arile and diene groups. It also reacts with acetylenic compounds, forming lithium acetylures, which are important in vitamin A synthesis. Applications: The main lithium compound is the lithium hydroxide. Itâ€™s a white powder; the manufactured material is monohydrate lithium hydroxide. The carbonate can be used in the pottery industry and in medicine as an antidepressant. The bromine and the lithium chloride both form concentrated brine, which have the property of absorbing the humidity in a wide interval of temperature; these brines are used in the manufactured air conditioning systems. The main industrial use of lithium is in lithium stearatum form, as lubricant greaseâ€™s thickener. Other important applications of lithium compounds are in pottery, specifically in porcelain glaze; as an additive to extend the life and performance of alkaline storage batteries and in autogenous welding and brass welding. Alloys of the metal with aluminium, cadmium, copper, and manganese are used to make high performance aircraft parts. Lithium in the environment: Like all alkali metals, lithium reacts easily in water and does not occur freely in nature due to its activity, Lithium is a moderately abundant element and its present in The Earthâ€™s crust in 65 ppm (parts per million). This situates lithium below nickel, copper, and tungsten and over cerium and tin, referring to abundance. In the United States lithium is recovered from brine pools in Nevada. Today, most commercial lithium is recovered from brine sources in Chile. World production of lithium ores and brone salts in around 40.000 tonnes per yearand reserves are estimated to be around 7 million tonnes. Lithium is easily adsorbed by plants. The amount of lithium in plants varies widely, in some cases reaching 30 ppm.
Technology / Cell Phones / Lithium-Ion Battery (Li-Ion): Lighter weight battery than earlier types, having relatively longer cycle life and generally do not suffer from memory effect. MORE
Science / Periodic Table of Elements / Lithium (Li): Atomic number: 3, Atomic mass: 6.941 g.mol -1, Electronegativity: 1.0, Density: 0.53 g.cm -3 at 20 Â°C, Melting point: 180.5 Â°C, Boiling point: 1342 Â°C, Vanderwaals radius: 0.145 nm, Ionic radius: 0 MORE