Science / Periodic Table of Elements / Sulfur (S): Atomic number: 16, Atomic mass: 32.06 g.mol -1, Electronegativity: 2.5, Density: 2.07 g.cm -3 at 20 °C, Melting point: 113 °C, Boiling point: 445 °C, Vanderwaals radius: 0.127 nm, Ionic radius: 0.184 (-2) nm ; 0.029 (+6), Isotopes: 5, Electronic shell: [Ne] 3s23p4, Energy of first ionisation: 999.3 kJ.mol -1, Energy of second ionisation: 2252 kJ.mol -1, Energy of tird ionisation: 3357 kJ.mol-1, Standard potential: - 0.51 V, Discovered by: The ancients. Sulphur is a multivalent non-metal, abundant, tasteless and and odorless. In its native form sulphur is a yellow crystalline solid. In nature it occurs as the pure element or as sulfide and sulfate minerals. Although sulphur is infamous for its smell, frequently compare to rotten eggs, that odor is actually characteristic of hydrogen sulphide (H2S). The crystallography of sulphur is complex. Depending on the specific conditions, sulphur allotropes form several distinct crystal structures. Applications: The major derivative of sulphur is sulphuric acid (H2SO4), one of the most important elements used as an industrial raw material. Sulphur is also used in batteries, detergents, fungicides, manufacture of fertilizers, gun power, matches and fireworks. Other applications are making corrosion-resistant concrete which has great strength and is forst resistant, for solvents and in a host of other products of the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Sulphur in the environment: Life on Earth may have been possible because of sulphur. Conditions in the early seas were such that simple chemical reactions could have generate the range of amino acids that are the building blocks of life. Sulphur occurs naturally near volcanoes. Native sulphur occurs naturally as massive deposits in Texas and Louisiana in the USA. Many sulphide minerals are known: pyrite and marcaiste are iron sulphide ; stibnite is antimony sulphide; galena is lead sulphide; cinnabar is mercury sulphide and sphalerite is zinc sulphide. Other, more important, sulphide ores are chalcopyrite, bornite, penlandite, millerite and molybdenite. The chief source of sulphur for industry is the hydrogen sulphide of natural gas, Canada is the main producer.
Business / Construction / Standard Practices Of The Trade(S): One of the more common basic and minimum construction standards. This is another way of saying that the work should be done in the way it is normally done by the average professional in the field. MORE