Science / Periodic Table of Elements / Vanadium (V): Atomic number: 23, Atomic mass: 50.9414 g.mol -1, Electronegativity: 1.6, Density: 6.1 g.cm-3 at 20Â°C, Melting point: 1910 Â°C, Boiling point: 3407 Â°C, Vanderwaals radius: 0.134 nm, Ionic radius: 0.074 nm (+3) ; 0.059 (+5), Isotopes: 5, Electronic shell: [ Ar ] 3d3 4s2, Energy of first ionisation: 649.1 kJ.mol -1, Energy of second ionisation: 1414 kJ.mol -1, Energy of third ionisation: 2830 kJ.mol -1, Energy of fourth ionisation: 4652 kJ.mol -1, Discovered by: Nils Sefstrom in 1830. Vanadium is a rare, soft, ductile gray-white element found combined in certain minerals and used mainly to produce certain alloys. Vanadium resists corrosion due to a protective film of oxide on the surface. Common oxidation states of vanadium include +2, +3, +4 and +5. Applications: Most of the vanadium (about 80%) produced is used as ferrovanadium or as a steel additive. Mixed with aluminium in titanium alloys is used in jet engines and high speed air-frames, and steel alloys are used in axles, crankshafts, gears and other critical components. Vanadium alloys are also used in nuclear reactors because vanadium has low neutron-adsorption abilities and it doesn not deform in creeping under high temperatures. Vanadium oxide (V2O5) is used as a catalyst in manufacturing sulfuric acid and maleic anhydride and in making ceramics. It is added to glass to produce green or blue tint. Glass coated with vanadium dioxide (VO2) can block infrared radiation at some specific temperature. Vanadium in the environment: Vanadium is never found unbound in nature. Vanadium occurs in about 65 different minerals among which are patronite, vanadinite, carnotite and bauxite. Vanadium occurs in carbon containing deposits such as crude oil, coal, oil shale and tar sands. Various vanadium ores are known but none is mined as such for the metal, which is generally obtained as a byproducts of other ores. The largest resources of vanadium are to be found in South Africa and in Russia. World production of vanadium ore is around 45.000 tonnes a year. Production of the metal itself comes to about 7000 tonnes per year. Watering is an important way in which vanadium is redistributed around the environment because venedates are generally very soluble. Vanadium is abundant in most soils, in variable amounts, and it is taken up by plants at levels that reflect its availability. In biology, a vanadium atom is an essential component of some enzymes, particularly the vanadium nitrogenase used by some nitrogen-fixing microorganisms.
Science / Periodic Table of Elements / Vanadium (V): Atomic number: 23, Atomic mass: 50.9414 g.mol -1, Electronegativity: 1.6, Density: 6.1 g.cm-3 at 20Â°C, Melting point: 1910 Â°C, Boiling point: 3407 Â°C, Vanderwaals radius: 0.134 nm, Ionic radius: 0. MORE