Science / Weather / Thickness: The thickness of a layer in the atmosphere is proportional to the mean temperature of that whole layer. The layer most often used in meteorology is between 1000 and 500 millibars. There can be different temperature profiles in the lowest layer of the atmosphere with the same 1000-500 millibar thickness value, depending on what is happening above that lowest layer. For example, if the lower levels are warming but higher levels are cooling, the overall mean temperature, the thickness, could remain the same. Likewise, on a sunny day, the amount of incoming solar radiation, affects the temperature right at the earth's surface, without necessarily having much effect on the thickness of the whole layer.
Technology / Rockets / Wall Thickness: Is equal to 1/2 the difference between the inside diameter and outside diameter of a chamber or tank. The actual gauge of the material used to make the vessel. MORE