Glossary / Technology

Home Audio Glossary

A-B Test: A test by which an observor subjectively compares the performance of two components of the same type
Abx Comparator: A device that randomly selects between two components being tested. The listener doesn't know which
Ac-3: (audio coding 3) Dolby's digital audio data compression algorithm adopted for HDTV transmission and
Acoustic Coupling: The interaction between two or more speakers stacked together in an audio system which may produce a
Acoustic Feedback: A phenomenon where the sound from a loudspeaker is picked up by the microphone or other transducer,
Acoustic Suspension: A type of speaker enclosure that uses a sealed box to provide tight, accurate bass response. It give
Acoustic Suspension (Enclosure): A Sealed box system that uses the resistance of the internal air of a sealed enclosure to control th
Acoustics: Sound is simply vibrating air. How fast, how much, and when the air is vibrated, determines what we
Active: A word prefacing certain circuits in which the processing is performed by use of transistor or tube
Active Display: A special feature for front panel receiver displays that generates animated patterns for both segmen
Adaptive Reception: A circuit that provides adjustable delay such that the time at which a sound wave is produced from v
Adaptive Trasformation Acoustic Coding (ATRAC): The process used in minidisc that utilizes psychoacoustic principles to limit quantization noise and
Aiff: Short for Audio Interchange File Format, a file format for storing and transmitting sampled sound. I
Air Gap: In a speaker's motor section, the space between the top plate and the pole piece. This is where the
Alternating Current: Electricity which flows in opposite directions, alternating at a certain rate (Hz). As supplied by p
Alternator Whine: A siren-like whining that appears as the rotational speed of an engine increases. The noise is usual
American Wire Gauge (AWG): A standard for measuring the diameter of wire commonly used in electrical circuits. The higher the A
Amperes (A): Ampere is a unit measurement of current of electrical energy equal to one coulomb of charge per seco
Amplification Classes: All sound is a sinosoidial waveform. It has alternating peaks and valleys. The center point of each
Amplifier: A device, either a single stage or a large scale circuit with mutiple stages for creating gain, ie.
Amplitude: The strength or intensity of an AC signal applied by the amplifiers output to a speaker's input. Als
Amplitude Modulation (AM): In radio broadcasting, amethod of modulation in which the amplitude of the carrier voltage is varied
Analog: An electrical signal in which the frequency and level vary continuously in direct relationship to th
Analog Switch: A hardware-oriented switch that only passes signals that are faithful analogs of transducer paramete
Anechoic Chamber: A special room that is constructed without acoustically reflective surfaces, such that it is without
Angled Box: A type of speaker enclosure wherein the woofers, or Drivers, are situated in a box that is angled on
Angled Enclosure: A type of speaker enclosure wherein the woofers, or Drivers, are situated in a box that is angled on
Anode: The electrically positive pole of an electronic device such as a semiconductor. A diode, for instanc
Antenna: A device, such as a rod or wire, which picks up a received radio frequency signal or radiates a tran
Aperiodic: Refers to a type of bass-cabinet loading. An aperiodic enclosure type usually features a very restri
Apparent Power: The result of multiplying the rms value of the voltage by the rms value of the current in an electro
Attenuate: The act of reducing the Amplitude or intensity of a signal. In speaker systems, high frequency drive
Audio: 1. Of, or relating to, humanly audible sound, i.e., audio is all the sounds that humans hear. 2. A.
Audio Frequency Spectrum: The band of frequencies extending roughly from 20 Hz to 20 khz and encompassing the full range of no
Audiophile: A species of dedicated audio nut who actually reads definitions like this.
Auto Memory: A tuner feature that automatically finds the strongest stations in the local area, and places them i
Automatic Music Search (AMS): A feature that allows a CD or cassette mechanism to skip forward or backwards to another track.
Automatic Tuner Activation (ATA): A feature that allows the tuner to be accessed while a tape deck is rewinding or fast forwarding.
Average Power: The result of multiplying the rms value of the voltage by the rms value of the current in an electro
Back Light: In receivers, a display may be lit from the rear to create better visibility under a wide range of a
Back Plate: The part of the woofers metal Basket or frame on which the Magnet structure is mounted.
Baffle: A flat panel that divides the front and rear sound waves produced by a woofer. Sometimes baffle is u
Balanced Wiring: Audio line signals require two conductors. In an unbalanced line, the shield is one of those. In a b
Banana Jacks: A set of connectors in which 4 spring contacts are wrapped vertically around a central pin like a ba
Banana Plugs: A set of connectors in which 4 spring contacts are wrapped vertically around a central pin like a ba
Band-Limiting Filters: A low-pass and a high-pass filter in series, acting together to restrict (limit) the overall bandwid
Bandpass Box: An enclosure that is specifically tuned to give maximum energy to a very limited range of frequencie
Bandpass Enclosure: An enclosure that is specifically tuned to give maximum energy to a very limited range of frequencie
Bandpass Filter: A filter that has a finite passband, neither of the cutoff frequencies being zero or infinite. The b
Bandpass Gain: The increase (or decrease) in efficiency of loudspeakers, due to the enclosure size and tuning. This
Bandwidth: Abbr. BW The numerical difference between the upper and lower -3 db points of a band of audio freque
Barium Ferrite: A speaker magnet material made from an alloy with iron and barium for improved magnetic strength.
Basket: The metal frame structure of a standard dynamic loudspeaker. In larger, heavier speakers, this may b
Bass: The portion of the audible sound spectrum that contains the lowest frequencies. These frequencies ha
Bass Boost: An active low pass amplifier section added to some receivers, equalizers, and amplifiers that allows
Bass Reflex: A type of speaker enclosure that includes a 'tuned' port or passive radiator to increase and extend
Bbe: A signal processing circuit that provides improvements in imaging and spatial realism by altering th
Bel: Abbr. B, B Ten decibels. ( In honor of Alexander Graham Bell.) The Bel was originally a unit measure
Bessel Alignment: A particular crossover configuration which offers superior phase coherence in exchange for slightly
Best Tuning Memory (BTM): A feature in which the tuner selects radio stations by signal strength, and assigns them to presets
Bi-Amping: Means that instead of driving a speaker full-range with a single channel of amplification through a
Bi-Amplification: Some speaker systems with multiple drivers do not contain a crossover network, and they require a se
Bi-Wiring: Involves connecting two sets of cables to your speakers, like bi-amping, but both sets of cables con
Binding Post Terminals: Are a sturdier, more versatile type of speaker jack, often found on higher-quality speakers and rece
Bipolar Transistor: A older but still effectively used transistor type that contains two p or n junctions or diodes betw
Bipole: A speaker design that uses two sets of drivers to generate equal amounts of sound both forward and b
Bl: (measured in Tesla meters) The product of a speaker driver’s gap flux density and the length of th
Blank Skip: A cassette feature that automatically detects blank areas of the tape over a set number of seconds i
Bnc: A type of high precision connection often used in instrumentation and sometimes in digital audio. BN
Boomy: Usually refers to excessivly reverberant bass response, or a peak in the bass response of a recordin
Box: Another, and common name for a standard speaker enclosure. There are many variations in type, which
Bridge Mounted (2 and 3-Way Speakers): In combined 2 and 3-way speakers, which have woofers together with a Tweeter, or a Tweeter and a Mid
Bridged Power: Bridging an amplifier, combines the power output of two channels into one channel. Bridging allows t
Btl: Bridged, Transformer Less. A circuit design wherein two small Integrated Circuit (IC) amplifier chan
Built-In Crossovers: Frequently used to limit the high-frequencies reaching a subwoofer, a low-pass filter crossover allo
Bullet Horn (Tweeter): A type of tweeter in which the radiator has a large passive, bullet-shaped device above its center t
Bumped: A method of woofer construction in which the rear suspension system is anchored a little further bac
Bumped and Vented: See discussion of Bumped above. Many higher power speakers have a vent hole in the center Pole Piece
Buss: A signal-carrying conductor or electrical pathway designed to carry multiple signals. A mixing conso
Butterworth Crossover: A type of crossover circuit utilizing low-pass filter design characterized by having a maximally fla
Butyl: A type of rubber used for speaker surrounds. Butyl has very good damping characteristics and is resi
Cabin Gain: A low frequency boost normally obtained inside a vehicle interior when woofers are optimally in phas
Canon Or Cannon: Brand name of multipoint connector used for professional audio equipment. Also known as XLR connecto
Capacitance: The property of an electric device that permits the storage of energy as a result of electric displa
Capacitor (Power Audio): Power stabilizing capacitors store the necessary power amplifiers need to punch larger bass notes wh
Cardioid: Heart shaped pickup pattern characteristic of some microphones which reduces sensitivity to sounds f
CD Changer: Separate units that may allow the user to hear any of 3 to 120 discs, or more in whatever order they
CD Controller: This is a device that can exist either incorporated into a car stereo receiver (head unit) or as a s
CD Head Unit: Is usually a single disc player installed as a separate unit (not including a radio receiver). These
CD Receiver: Multiple function receivers are most commonly configured with radio and CD player capabilities in st
Center Channel: In home theater, a signal sent to a speaker mounted in front of the listener, specially designed to
Center Channel Speaker: The center channel speaker reproduces almost all of a movie's dialogue and much of the special effec
Channel: Common name for a complete amplifying stage in any audio amplifier. Most amplifiers are denominated
Chebyshev Filter: A filter that has some ripple in the pass-band but has an initial attenuation slope which is steeper
Chord: A combination of two or more notes played simultaneously
Circuit Breaker: An electrical switch that automatically breaks a circuit if the current through it is higher than it
Clipping: A signal that results from an amplifier that is either overloaded or underpowered relative to the si
Cms: Referring to the compliance of the mechanical suspension of a speaker cone, consisting of the spider
Coaxial Cable: A single copper conductor, surrounded with a layer of insulation, covered by a surrounding copper sh
Coloration: A term used to describe levels of audio Distortion that cause serious departures from a true High Fi
Comb Filter Effect: This acoustical and electronic effect occurs when two signals interact in such a way as to produce a
Compact Disc (CD): The most popular format for conveying music and data currently available. It is among the first digi
Compliance: The measurement in liters or cubic feet of the volume of air that is equal to the compliance, or max
Component System: This term is used in relation to speaker systems, to indicate a system in which separate mounting ar
Compression: 1. An increase in density and pressure in a medium, such as air, caused intermittently by the passag
Compression (Audio): The process of reducing the dynamic range of a given analog audio program by making the loud parts q
Compression (Data): The process of packing digital data, such as computer files, more efficiently for the purpose of sto
Compression Driver: Compression drivers are usually dynamic; that is, with a magnet and interacting coil arrangement, an
Compression Wave: A wave propagated by means of the compression of a fluid, such as a sound wave in air. To create sou
Compressor: A type of dynamic range processor which reduces the gain of audio signals which are over an adjustab
Concert Pitch: A standard for the tuning of musical instruments, internationally agreed in 1960, in which the note
Condenser Microphone: A mike that depends on an external power supply or internal battery to electrostatically charge capa
Conductor: Materials along which electrons will flow, making them suitable for use as connecting links in elect
Cone: The cone-shaped diaphragm of a speaker. This is directly attached to the voice coil motor which acti
Connectors: There are several different ways to connect the cables from your receiver or amplifier to your speak
Constant Directivity (Cd) Horn: A horn-loaded high frequency driver that exhibits more or less constant distribution of high-frequen
Coulomb: An amount of electrical charge which contains 6.24 x 1018 of electrons. So there!
Counter Firing: A method for reducing harmonic distortion at low frequencies that involves the use of a secondary co
Cross Talk: 1. Undesired capacitive, inductive, or conductive coupling from one circuit, part of a circuit, or c
Crossover: A circuit that divides the frequency spectrum into two or more parts. A crossover acts as a filter,
Crossover Frequencies: The frequencies at which a passive or electronic crossover network divides the audio signals, which
Crossover Network: A unit which divides the audio spectrum into two or more frequency bands (Also see Crossover Frequen
Crossover Slope: The rate at which a crossover circuit attenuates the blocked frequencies. Slope is expressed as deci
Current: The volume or quantum of the flow of electrons through a conductor, as opposed to voltage, which is
Custom File: A feature package that provides intuitive and safe source management for an audio and A/V system. Ex
Cutoff Frequency Filters: The frequency at which a signal falls off by 3 db (the half power point) from it's maximum value. Al
Dac (D-A): Digital to analog converter. An IC component or circuit that is used to derive or convert an analog
Damper: Part of the suspension connected to the bottom of the speaker cone at the voice coil that centers th
Damping: As Newton observed, an object once set in ,motion will keep on moving unless a restrictive counterfo
Damping Factor: The ratio of rated load impedance to the internal impedance of an amplifier. The higher the value, t
Dc: Direct Current.
Dc Converter: Since 12 volts limits the amplitude of an audio signal, a group of components within an amplifier co
Decay: The time of reduction of the level of a signal immediately after its cessation .
Decibel (Db): One tenth of a Bel. This is a measurement of the comparative strength of two powers, and can be appl
Delay: A signal processing device or circuit used to delay one or more of the output signals by a controlla
Destructive Interference (Phase Cancellation): A phenomenon that occurs when speakers are 180 degrees out of phase, i.e., what one speaker is tryin
Detachable Face: Occasionally referred to as 'Removable Panel' or 'Theft Deterrent Faceplate', or some variation. Thi
Diaphragm: The part of a speaker driver that moves, producing the sound. Each diaphragm is directly connected t
Diaphragm: This term describes the sound-producing element in a tweeter, or Horn. This is the surface that prod
Die Cast (Basket): A type of speaker basket or frame that is cast as a single piece of relatively thick, rigid metal. T
Diffraction: A change in the direction and velocity of a wave front that is caused by the wave moving past an obs
Diffuse: Widely spread out or scattered; not concentrated.
Diffuser: A commercial device like a lens or grillwork that diffuses, or scatters sound
Diffusion: The scattering of sound. Diffusion reduces the ability of a listener to pinpoint the actual location
Digital Amplifiers: See article on 'amplifier classes'
Digital Signal Processing (DSP): A technology for signal processing that combines algorithms and fast number-crunching digital hardwa
Digital Technology: Human beings directly process information in an analog format. That is, our senses directly convey i
Din: Acronym for Deutsche Industrie Norm (Deutsches Institut fuer Normung), the German standardization bo
Dipole: A speaker design that uses two sets of drivers to generate equal amounts of sound both forward and b
Direct And Reflected Sound: The sound that you hear from your listening/viewing position is a combination of the direct sound th
Direct Sound: Sound that arrives at the listeners ear first.. Sound reaching the listening location without reflec
Discrete Output Devices: A separate active unit in an amplifier, capable of performing a single essential function within the
Dispersion: The extent to which a sound emitter yields acoustic radiation over a given area. This is a particula
Displacement: The measurement of cubic volume that an item (such as a speaker or port) takes away from the interna
Distortion: Any departure from a true and accurate reproduction of the original waveform. It can include Noise,
Diversity Tuner: An FM tuning method which employs two antennas. The tuner can switch between the two antennas in ord
Dolby: The most common shared logo or feature between all brands is the Dolby labs' 'double D' symbol. Name
Dolby Digital: Dolby's name for its format for the digital soundtrack system for motion picture playback. Utilizes
Dolby Noise Reduction: Decodes Dolby-encoded cassette tapes during playback to virtually eliminate the tape hiss which is e
Dome Tweeter: Tweeters come in several different types; cones, horns and domes being the most popular. Dome types
Dot Matrix Display: A display type that employs regularly spaced patterned grids of point-source lighting elements. As a
Double Stacked (Magnet): Two magnets overlaying each other to increase the overall magnetic field. In some designs for home t
Double-Banana Plugs: Are the same as banana plugs, except the positive and negative banana connectors are both fixed in a
Dress: The arrangement of signal leads and wiring for optimum circuit operation, cosmetic appeal, and prote
Driver: An alternate term for: speaker, transducer, or radiator. Properly speaking, the term speaker should
Driver Volume: The amount of enclosure airspace that is displaced by the speaker itself.
Dual Voice Coil: A woofer with two voice coils mounted to a common cone, which can be connected to separate amplifier
Dual-Cone: Many factory installed auto speakers are of the dual cone type. Sometimes also referred to as a 'ful
Dub: A copy or the process of making a copy of a recording on another storage device.
Dust Cover-Cap: A rigid cardboard or plastic dome placed over the opening to the voice coil cylinder in a dynamic co
Dynamic Range: The ratio of the loudest (undistorted) signal to that of the quietest (discernible) signal in a unit
Dynamic Range Suppression: A signal compression technique which raises the level of lower passages without affecting overall vo
Dynamics: When used in music, refers to the varying degree of loudness and softness in a musical performance.
Earth: An electrical connection to the earth, which represents 0 volts or 'ground potential' by way of a me
Easter Egg: A surprise 'extra' coded into DVD's, computer programs or web pages that is accessed by an undocumen
Echo: The effect of a sound and a delayed version of that same sound. A 'Slap-Back Echo' is the original s
Effect: A device which modifies sonic structures creatively with various processing techniques.
Effective Piston Area (Sd): (measured in square inches or meters) The active radiating area of a speaker cone, including that pa
Efficiency: The ability of an audio system to convert electrical energy (watts) into mechanical energy (Decibels
Efficiency Bandwidth Product (EBP): A parameter that helps determine the suitability of a driver for a sealed or ported enclosure. An EB
Electrolytic Capacitor: A polarized capacitor with a negative and a positive terminal that is commonly used for DC power fil
Electronic Shock Protection (ESP): An electronic circuit that stores the audio data stream from a CD or MD in a memory buffer. If the l
Electrostatic Driver: The Electrostatic Driver generates a motive force for its diaphragm by the interaction of electric r
Enclosure: A cabinet in which the various Drivers are housed. This arrangement is absolutely essential if bass
Enclosure Volume: The total amount of internal airspace of an enclosure. Each woofer has an optimal airspace volume th
Enhancer Circuit: An active low pass amplifier section added to some receivers, equalizers, and amplifiers that allows
Equalizer (EQ): A class of electronic filter circuits designed to augment or adjust electronic or acoustic systems.
Ergonomics: The accessibility and ease of controlling a system in normal operational mode with a minimum of moti
Excursion: The back-and-forth travel of a cone in a dynamic Driver. How loud a speaker can play depends on how
Excursion Limited Power Handling: Based on the maximum amount of power the driver can handle without appreciable distortion. All frequ
Excursion Limited SPL: The maximum sound pressure level the system can produce given an input signal equal to the rated exc
Expander: A type of dynamic range processor which reduces the gain of audio signals which are under an adjusta
Extended Pole Piece: Extended pole pieces on the magnet assembly allow for more voice coil travel, and thus lower Frequen
F3: The frequency at which the acoustic power output from a system has fallen to one-half its reference
Fader: Rather like the right to left balance control, however the fader moves the sonic position between th
Farad (F): The basic unit of capacitance. A capacitor has a capacitance of 1F when a charge of 1 Volt across th
Fast-Fourier Transform (FFT): A method by which a system is described using an impulse response. Both frequency and time data can
Fb: The tuned frequency of a Vented Enclosure, measured in Hertz. A combination of the resonance frequen
Feedback: See acoustic feedback.
Fidelity: A term used to describe the accuracy of recording, reproduction, or general quality of audio process
Filter: Any of various electric, electronic, acoustic, or optical devices used to reject signals, vibrations
Flat: When a speaker's response is described as 'flat,' that's a good thing. It means that the speaker can
Flat Response: An output signal in which fundamental frequencies and harmonics are in the same proportion as those
Fletcher-Munson Curves: Fletcher and Munson were pioneering researchers who provided the basis of High Fidelity in the '30s.
Flush (Mounting): Mounting a speaker in such a way that the speaker and its Grill do not protrude above the surroundin
Flux: The flow of magnetic energy in a circuit. Flux density is the measure of the strength of the magneti
Former: The cylindrical portion of a speaker's voice coil section. A wire is wound around this cylinder to f
Free Sound Field: A sound field without acoustic boundaries or where the boundaries are so distant as to cause negligi
Free-Air Configuration: This description usually indicates a speaker that, in the opinion of the manufacturer, is suitable f
Frequency: 1. The property or condition of occurring at frequent intervals. 2. Mathematics. Physics. The number
Frequency Modulation (FM): In radio broadcasting, a method of modulation in which the frequency of the carrier voltage is varie
Frequency Response: The range of frequencies that a speaker will reproduce (lowest frequency to the highest). While the
Front Speakers: In home theater, the front left and right speakers deliver a wide soundstage that blends with the vi
Fs: Fs or Free Air Resonance is the frequency at which a speaker naturally resonates, like a tuning fork
Full Logic Deck: A cassette mechanism where the tape operations are carried out by logic circuit operated solenoids r
Fuse: A device designed to provide protection for a given circuit or device by physically opening the circ
Fusible Link: Designed to perform the same task as a fuse, but the resembles a wire. Fusible links are commonly us
Gas Plasma: Gas plasma emitters are a type of Horn Driver wherein a plasma or ionized gas field is developed and
Generator: A machine that produces AC electricity from a rotating coil interaction within a magnetic field. In
Gig: Slang for job, engagement of musicians to play and perform.
Granulation Noise: A type of audible distortion resulting from quantization error in digital transmission modes.
Graphic Equalizer: A multi-band variable equalizer using slide controls as the amplitude adjustable elements. Named for
Grill: A barrier meant to prevent damage to the Driver that it covers, or that creates a more attractive ap
Ground: A term that describes anything having an electrical potential of zero relative to other points in a
Ground Loop: The term given to the condition that occurs when a voltage potential exists between two separate gro
Haas Effect: Also known as precedence effect, describes the human psychoacoustic phenomena of correctly identifyi
Hard Dome (Tweeter): A characteristic of some Dome tweeters in which the dome is made of some light, hard metal such as n
Harmonic Distortion: A type of Distortion in which resonance or sympathetic ringing vibrations are added to the original
Harness: The universal name for a bundle or loom of wires that compose the wiring for a system.
Hatchback (Box Or Enclosure): An enclosure of such size and shape as to enable its efficient use in hatchback-style vehicles. Norm
Headroom: A term related to the dynamic range of amplifiers, used to express in db, the level between the typi
Heat Dissipation: The function of transfering heat away from a component into the air to prevent damage to the output
Heat Sink: Parts of an amplifier, typically heavy metal 'fins,' and a section of the frame of the speaker used
Hertz (Hz): The measurement of frequency. One hertz is equal to one cycle per second, or the complete cycle of a
High Fidelity: A method of sound reproduction that emphasizes the highest possible adherence to the exact character
High Level Input: An audio input configured to accept speaker level signals.
High Pass Filter: An electronic filter of a type commonly incorporated in Crossover circuits that permits the passage
High Power Output: Speaker level outputs driven by an amplifier, typically at least 15 watts RMS per channel.
High Voltage Switching Power Supply: An amplifier's internal power supply that converts the vehicle's 12 volts to higher voltage for impr
Horn: A type of speaker system now principally used for high-frequency reproduction, but which is capable
Horn Tweeter: A driver consisting of a relatively small emitter surmounted by a curvilinear or exponential horn. T
Hum Components: The residual artifact harmonics of the AC power supply. In the U.S. the use a 60-Hz system, places t
Hyperbaric Resonator Impulse: An audible event characterized by a sudden and often unexpected pressure wave emanating from a vent
Hypercardioid: A narrower heart-shaped pick-up pattern than that of cardioid microphones.
Imaging: Imaging describes the extent to which an audio system reproduces the directional cues that enable th
Impedance: The totality measured in Ohms of all electrical opposition to current flow: resistance, reactance, c
Inductive Coupling: Radiated noise that is transmitted through a magnetic field to surrounding lines. This frequently oc
Inductor: A transformer, or an electrical component in which impedance increases as the frequency of the AC de
Infinite Baffle: An infinite baffle speaker design is defined as an enclosure that contains a greater volume of air t
Infrasonic: Waves or vibrations with frequencies below that of audible sound (20 Hz.).
Input Overload Distortion: Distortion caused by too great an input signal being sent to an amplifier or preamplifier. It is not
Input Sensitivity: Is the SPL (sound pressure level) a speaker will produce given one watt of power as measured from on
Input Voltage: The power voltage provided to an amplifier. While most cars can be expect to reliably produce 12 vol
Insertion Loss: The loss of voltage (or power), as measured in db, resulting from placing a resistor (or some other
Institue of High Fidelity (IHF): The premier institution for high fidelity whose standards have come to be universally recognized in
Insulation Or Insulator: A non-conductive protective covering for electrically active parts and wire that prevents short circ
Interface: A device or protocol which facilitates the linking of any two devices or systems; or when used as a
Intermodulation Distortion: A species of Distortion that results when one set of frequencies is superimposed on, or is modified
Inverse Square Law: In mathematics, the law that states that in the absence of reflective surfaces, sound pressure (or l
Iso-Din Mounting: Refers to a receiver mounting system in which the headunit is mounted behind the dash panel with sid
Isobarik: Sometimes spelled Isobaric, this is an enclosure design in which two or more Drivers are coupled tog
Isolation: Electrical or acoustical separation to prevent the spread of noise and the effect on the signal of u
Jack: A receptical for a plug used to interconnect electronic devices.
Joule: A unit of energy equal to one watt per second.
Jumper: To provide a temporary circuit around a component or other circuit A device that anables this action
Kapton: A voice coil design in which multiple layers are used on a Kapton coated coil form to create the rot
Keypad: A panel usually made of metal or plastic with numbered push-button switches (like a touch-tone telep
Kilohertz (Khz): A frequency of one thousand (1,000) cycles per second.
Kirchoffs Current Law (KCL): A law stating that the total current entering a point or junction in a circuit must equal the sum of
Kirchoffs Voltage Law (KVL): A law stating stating that the voltage supplied to a DC circuit must equal the sum of the voltage dr
L-Pad: A low resistance (commonly 8 ohms) potentiometer used primarily to control the input delivered to a
Lcd: Liquid Crystal Display. Probably the most common way of showing visual information on non-computer e
Le: The electrical inductance of a speaker’s voice coil. (Measured In Millihenries, Mh)
Lfe Input: Found on some powered subwoofers, this special preamp-level input accepts the 'Low Frequency Effects
Limiter: An electronic compressor with a fixed ratio of 10:1 or greater. The dynamic action effectively preve
Line-Level: Standard +4 dbu or -10 dbv audio levels. Used in communicating standard signals between processing d
Linear: 1. Referring to mechanical movement, the ability of the voice coil to move in and out in the air gap
Linear Phase Response: Any system which accurately preserves phase relationships between frequencies.
Linearity: The degree to which a given transducer or amplifier can produce an equal response within its specifi
Listening Position: A feature which can optimize frequency response and imaging for a particular position in a vehicle t
Load: The resistance or impedance to which energy is being supplied. In amplifiers, the speaker or speaker
Loss: The difference between potential energy output and actual energy output.
Lossy Compression: A type of data compression which permanently discards data that humans supposedly 'cannot hear' to c
Loudness: The Sound Pressure Level of a standard sound which appears to be as loud as the unknown. Loudness le
Loudness Compensation: When played quietly, this switched circuit allows fuller apparent sound from a system such that the
Loudspeaker: An electro-acoustic transducer that converts electrical audio signals at its input to audible sound
Low Frequency: Refers to radio frequencies within the 30-300 khz band. In audio it usually refers to frequencies in
Low Pass Filter: A network of components which attenuate all frequencies above a predetermined frequency selected by
Low Q: A low Q, or QTS, (reactance) woofer Driver is desirable for use in a vented enclosure.
Magnet Boot: A rubber or plastic cover for the magnet housing for protection or appearance, mostly the latter.
Magnet Structure: A combination of magnetic material and connected field concentrators that creates the magnetic field
Magnetic Flux Density: The measurement of magnetic flux, in units of Gauss, inside the air gap in which a voice coil of a s
Mash: An acronym for Multi-stage noise shaping. This is the name given to the digital advances that were i
Matched Components: A typical separates system includes a separate woofer, tweeter, and external Crossover, all of which
Memo List: A Custom File feature that allows the user to toggle through the discs, selection titles, or station
Memory: The word most commonly used to refer to a system's ability to retain specific information, particula
Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor ( Mosfet): A type of large output transistor used in the final stages of many power amplifiers, and commonly fo
Metal Tape Eq: An equalization circuit that compensates for the unique frequency response characteristics of metal
Microbar: 1. A unit of atmospheric pressure equal to one millionth of a bar. 2. A place to consume the product
Microprocessor: A multiple semiconductor IC device that can be dedicated or programmed to perform a variety of tasks
Midbass: Those frequencies roughly between 100 and 300 Hertz. (CPS)
Midi: Acronym for Musical Instrument Digital Interface, a standard adopted by the electronic music industr
Midi Files: A computer file format containing musical information and performance data capable of being used in
Midrange: A Driver that is usually much smaller than a woofer, but with a surface area greater than the typica
Milliamps: A unit of measurement of electric current equal to 1/1000th of an ampere. The milliampere is the mos
Mixer: At its simplest level, an audio processing device used to add (combine or sum) multiple inputs into
Mono (Monaural): The operation of an amplifier in one channel for both input and output. Can refer to an amplifier wi
Mosfet Power Supply: A power supply that employs MOSFET transistors to convert DC to AC. Offers superior thermal stabilit
Motor Structure: The part of the speaker that moves a diaphragm to produce sound. The motor structure basically consi
Mounting Depth: The amount of physical space required to mount a Driver without having any of its parts touch object
Mounting Ring: Often used to describe the circular gasket seal incorporated into the edge of a speaker, traditional
MP3: Is the file extension for MPEG, audio layer 3. Layer 3 is one of three coding schemes (layer 1, laye
Multi-Tracking: The process of recording a multi-part performance on separate tracks at different times which allows
Multimeter: A common term used to describe a VOM. A multimeter usually has the ability to measure volts, ohms, a
Mute: A control found on receivers, some mixers, and certain signal processing units that silences (mutes)
National Television System Committee (NTSC): Refers to the standards used for video broadcast and playback signal parameters in the U.S. Japan an
Near Field Sound: Typically, any point where the direct sound emission is measurably louder than the reflections of th
Negative Feedback: The dynamic comparison of a fraction of the output signal to the input signal at the input to an amp
Negative LCD: A liquid crystal display employing a dark backfield with lit elements. This results in a primarily d
Neodymium: A material used in some speaker magnets. Neodymium magnets are smaller and more powerful than conven
Neodymium Magnet: A magnet material providing 7.5 times the magnetic strength of standard magnetic materials.
Net Volume: The amount of airspace that is enclosed within a speaker's enclosure. This does not include the airs
Noise: Perceived sounds not in the original soundtrack. Such things as hiss, crackle, pops, hum, and buzz,
Noise Floor: Normally the lowest threshold of useful signal level (although sometimes audible signals below the n
Noise Gate: An expander with a fixed 'infinite' downward expansion ratio. Used extensively for controlling unwan
Nominal Impedance: The minimum impedance a loudspeaker presents to an amplifier, directly related to the power the spea
Non-Delay Play: A disc changer feature with significantly reduced silence between the time one disc is finished, and
Non-Lossy Compression: A form of data compression which seeks out chunks of data which are identical, replacing them with m
Notch Filter: A special type of cut-only equalizer used to attenuate ( no boosting ) a narrow band of frequencies.
Nyquists Theorem: This states that a sound must be sampled at at least twice its highest analog frequency in order to
Octave: In audio, the interval between any two frequencies having a ratio of 2 to 1. One octave up from 100
Ohm: The measurement of electrical resistance and system impedance. It is a measure of the degree to whic
Ohms Law: The mathematical relationship between voltage, current, and resistance. It is named after George Ohm
Omnidirectional: Literally, from all directions. In audio, microphones are said to be omnidirectional if they can det
On Axis: A listening experience which takes place with the ear precisely lined up with the central pressure a
Op Amp: (operational amplifier) An analog integrated circuit device having two opposite polarity inputs and
Oscillator: A device which produces an alternating current or pulsating current or voltage at varying frequencie
Output (Audio): The high level (speaker) or line level (RCA) signals sent from one system component to another, or t
Oversampling: A technique where each sample from a data converter is sampled more than once, i.e., oversampled. Th
Overtone: Similar in concept to a harmonic. Overtones are sounds produced by an instrument (or sound source) t
Pad: An electrical circuit used to attenuate or reduce the amplitude of an audio signal by a fixed amount
Pan Pot: Short for panoramic potentiometer, this is a knob controlling a voltage divider that can send a sign
Parallel Wiring: A circuit in which two or more devices are connected to the same source of voltage, sharing a common
Parametric Equalizer: A multi-band equalizer enabeling control of at least three essential 'parameters' of the internal ba
Passive Component: In a crossover system, a non-powered component used to separate an audio signal into a specified fre
Passive Radiator: A type of bass reflex speaker enclosure that includes a 'passive' woofer in addition to the main woo
Peak Power Handling (Max): Peak power handling refers to the amount of power a speaker is estimated to handle during a brief hi
Period: The amount of time required to complete a full single cycle of a sound wave.
Permalloy Tape Head: A cassette tape head constructed of permalloy, an alloy made primarily of nickel and iron, used for
Phase: Refers to the timing relationship of two or more signals or sound waves. It's especially important t
Phase Cancellation: Audio signals are complex phenomena expressed mathematically as phasors, or vectors. When two signal
Phase Control: A 2-position switch found on some powered subwoofers that lets you delay the subwoofer's output slig
Phase Delay: A phase-shifted sine wave appears displaced in time from the input waveform. This displacement is ca
Phase Linear: Any audio system which accurately preserves phase relationships between frequencies, i.e., that exhi
Phase Shift: The fraction of a complete cycle elapsed as measured from a specified reference point and expressed
Phon: A unit of apparent loudness, equal in quantum to the intensity in decibels of a 1,000 Hz tone estima
Piezo (Tweeter): A tweeter whose motor is simply a crystal of Piezo material through which the signal current flows.
Piezoelectric Driver: This is among the most robust and least expensive alternative drivers for the high frequency reprodu
Pin-Type Connectors: Will work with both spring clip and binding post terminals. This is probably the best type for conne
Pink Noise: Pink noise is a random noise source characterized by a flat amplitude response per octave band of fr
Pitch: The subjective sensation produced by various frequencies. The higher the frequency, the higher the p
Polar Response: A plot of the Amplitude measurement of a speaker's output at a given frequency relative to an off-ax
Pole Piece: The ends or 'Poles' of a magnet from which the magnetic lines of force, measured in Gauss, are at th
Polypropylene: A plastic based material used primarily for speaker cones due to its rigidity, damping and resistanc
Port: An opening, usually a tube, in an enclosure, through which sound is permitted to pass.
Port Diameter: The measurement across the port opening. Measured as internal diameter (not outer diameter .
Port Length: The measurement of the length of the port tube.
Ported (Enclosure): Any enclosure design with ports. In such designs the internal pressure wave is processed to be used
Potentiometer: A three-terminal variable resistor. Two terminals connect to the ends of a flat resistor, while the
Power: A. The product of applied voltage (potential difference) and current in a direct-current circuit (or
Power Factor: The ratio of the total power in watts (resistive load) to the total apparent power in voltamperes (V
Power Handling: A measure of how much amplifier power, in watts, a speaker can take before it is damaged.
Power Handling: A rating of a Driver's ability in optimum conditions to handle a specified amount of audio power (el
Pre-Amp: A circuit unit which takes a small signal and amplifies it sufficiently to be fed into the power amp
Preamp Output: Typically found on headunits, a preamp output provides low level, high quality audio signal for use
Precedence Effect: Also known as the Haas effect, this phenomenon identifies the tendency for the ear to attribute all
Preset: A collection of system settings stored in a memory that is virtually instantly recallable, typically
Program Bank: A Custom File feature that allows the user to flag the tracks on a disc, indicating whether they sho
Program Play: A Custom File feature that allows the user to define a sequence of 12 tracks, in a specific order, f
Proximity Effect: An increase in the bass response of some microphones as the distance between the mike and its sound
Psychoacoustics: The scientific study of the relationship between human hearing and its stimulus; in other words, how
Punch: Like 'hitting hard,' a subjective colloquial term that describes the snap or deep impact of the low
Q: The ratio of reactance to resistance in a series circuit, or the ratio of resistance to reactance in
Qes: The Q of a speaker driver at its free air resonance considering only its electrical losses.
Qms: The Q of a speaker driver at its free air resonance considering only its mechanical losses
Qtc: The total Q or resistance of a woofer and sealed enclosure at the system’s resonance frequency, co
Qts: The total resistance in a series or parallel circuit. This takes into account all Driver resistances
Quantization: The process of converting, or digitizing, the almost infinitely variable amplitude of an analog wave
Quantization Error: Error resulting from quantizing an analog waveform to a discrete level. In general the longer the wo
Quasi-Parametric: A type of equalizer. A quasi-parametric (also known as 'semi-parametric') EQ will allow control over
Quick Release (Terminal): A means for securing a wire conductor to a terminal connector that permits easy attachment and remov
Quiescent Current: The term given to describe the amount of current consumed by a circuit when it is not performing any
Radio Data System (Rds): RDS stands for Radio Data System. RDS tuners can automatically tune in stations according to the typ
Radio Frequency (Rf): An alternating current or voltage with a frequency (or carrier wave) above about 100khz. It's called
Random Code Encryption: In auto security systems, these terms describe anti-code grabbing technology, a feature which preven
Random Play: Also known as shuffle play. In CD players and changers, this function randomizes the order of select
Range (Audio): Usually described as frequency range, this is a system's frequency transmission limits, beyond which
Rarefaction: In sound waves, the opposite of compression. An area of decreased air pressure caused by a sound wav
Ratio: One of the parameters which can be varied on dynamic range processors such as compressors and expand
Re: The inherent Direct Current resistance of a speaker's voice coil.
Reactance: In Ac circuits, whether passive or active, a form of frequency dependent resistance produced by indu
Rem Or Remote Wire: The cable connected between the amplifier and the receiver that turns on the amplifier whenever the
Remote Control: For remote-compatible devices, wired or infrared wireless remotes are either included with a receive
Resistance: Most all conductors of electrons exhibit a property called resistance. Resistance impedes the flow o
Resonance: The tendency for a mechanical or electrical systems to vibrate or resonate sympathetically at a cert
Resonant Frequency: The frequency at which a speaker cone vibrates with the least inertia. The point on the spectrum at
Reverb: Abbreviation for reverberation, a complex blend of multiple interacting reflections within an enclos
Reverberant Field: The sound field that exists when the reflected sound at a listening position predominates over the d
RF Modulator: A device that converts a signal (typically audio and/or video) into a radio frequency. This can be r
Ribbon Driver: The ribbon tweeter driver is a very thin corrugated aluminum 'voice coil' hanging freely like a stre
Ringing: The tendency for any vibrating surface to continue to produce the same frequency. This is limited by
Ripple (Amplifier): A train of pulses that occurs when AC is changed to DC via a rectifier. These pulses are left on the
Ripple (Speaker): The maximum deviation from flat response, measured in decibels-it indicates the port's effect on woo
Roll Off: A graduated reduction in the strength of audio output above and below certain specified frequencies.
Roof-Mount Antenna: A permanently-installed antenna located in the center of a vehicle's roof.
Room Response: The effectiveness of any speaker system is a function of the room or environment in which it is play
Root Mean Squared (RMS): A term used to indicate the average level of power that a receiver or amplifier can sustain over a g
Rotary Volume: An analog or linear volume control operated with a knob to raise and lower the volume, as opposed to
Run-Length Encoding: See Non-Lossy Compression.
Satellite Radio: Digital radio transmission system that utilizes satellites in space to broadcast directly to ground
Satellite Speaker: A small speaker with limited bass response that's often designed to be used with a matching subwoofe
Scan Tuning: In FM receivers, Preset Scan automatically plays a brief sample of what's on each of the preset stat
Screw Type (Terminal): The most secure method of interconnecting the wire from the amplifier to a speaker. In its best real
Sealed (Enclosure): Sometimes known as an Acoustic suspension type, the sealed enclosure is a simple design in which eac
Second-Order: The frequency attenuation that occurs at a rate of 12 db per octave.
Selectivity: Tuner specification which defines the tuner's ability to reject adjacent station interference.
Sensitivity (Efficiency): The rating of a loudspeaker that indicates the level of a sound intensity that the speaker produces
Separates: A typical separates system includes a separate woofer, tweeter, and external Crossover, all of which
Short Circuit: The condition that occurs when a circuit path is created between the positive and negative poles of
Shuffle Play: A feature which employs random selection from available tracks.
Sibilance: High frequency complex sounds in speech, such as 'S', 'F' & 'T'.
Signal Processors: Electronic devices which alter sound either to achieve a particular effect or to solve a problem wit
Signal To Noise Ratio: A measurement of noise level in a device compared to the level of the signal. Higher numbers signify
Silk Dome (Tweeters): Dome tweeters in which the dome is composed of a treated soft silk like material. This is a design t
Slew Rate: Slew rate measures the ability of a piece of audio equipment to accurately reproduce fast changes in
Slope: The rate of change that a frequency response curve displays, normally stated in db per Octave. Among
Sound: A type of physical kinetic energy called acoustical energy that falls within the portion of the spec
Sound Discriminator: A device designed to evaluate, and discriminate between the sounds that may be heard within the inte
Sound Field: The totality of the sound presented by the audio system. This includes the sound as it was recorded,
Sound Power: The total amount of acoustical energy produced by a sound source and measured in Joules per second.
Sound Pressure Level (SPL): An acoustic measurement of sound energy. 1 db SPL is the smallest increment in sound level to which
Sound Shaping: A sophisticated cicuit that defines the parameters of the sonic experience with a blending of direct
Sound Waves: Fluctuating waves of barometric pressure that travel through a physical medium such as air. An acous
Soundstage: The position (front/back and high/low) that music or sound appears to be originating from, as well a
Soundstaging: A stereo or home theater system's ability to present music, dialogue, and other sounds as taking pla
Source Impedance: A parameter of an audio component referring to the output impedance. A low output impedence .5 to 4
Spade Connector: Spade connectors are compatible with most binding post terminals. A spade fits around the terminal's
Spider: The rear suspension element on the cone of a loudspeaker. All the moving parts of the speaker are su
Spring Clip Terminals: Are usually found on lower-priced speakers, and low- to medium-priced receivers. They work best with
Stamped (Basket): The frame of a loudspeaker which has been stamp pressed to achieve its shape. It is used as a base t
Standing Wave: A phenomenon where a sound is reflected between two parallel surfaces, such that certain sounds are
Streaming: A technique for transferring data such that it can be processed as a steady and continuous stream. S
Stroke: The distance that the speaker cone or voice coil can travel in both directions.
Studio Monitors: Speakers used in recording studios for playback and mixing of source recordings. While these are com
Subwoofer: A speaker specially designed to reproduce a range of very low frequencies only (the bass). The typic
Subwoofer Preamp Outputs: Individual number of RCA outputs that are coupled with a built-in low-pass crossover for connection
Super Audio Compact Disc (SACD): SACD is one of two main emerging new standards for high-resolution audio on compact discs. The other
Super Tweeter: A Driver constructed to reproduce the highest possible frequencies from roughly 13 khz to 25 khz. Wh
Supraaural: Term used in reference to headphones. Supraaural phones rest on the ear, rather than enclosing the e
Surface (Mounting): A method of mounting speakers in which the external parts of the upper speaker protrude above the su
Surround: The surround is the flexible ring around the edge of the speaker cone. In conjunction with the inner
Surround Speakers: In a home theater system, the speakers located beside or behind the listening/viewing position. Thes
Sweet Spot: The so-called 'best' listening position in which the sound field is overlapped by the most direct ra
Tape Equalization: In tape decks, the best equalization response must be selected according to the type of tape — nor
Terminal Cup: A plastic cabinet part that contains the terminal connectors that permits the wire from the amplifie
Terminals: You probably don't think about the connectors on the back of your speakers until you go to hook them
Theile-Small Parameters: The work of Neville Theile and Richard Small is considered to have the most impact on the loudspeake
Three-Way: Three-way or triaxial speakers take the separate woofer and tweeter from a two-way design and add a
THX: THX is a set of standards, components and systems are designed to meet in order to comply with the r
Timbre: Pronounced 'tam-burr.' The quality of a sound related to its harmonic structure. Timbre is what give
TOC (Table Of Contents): The digital subcode information that identifies a disc, indicates the number of tracks, the starting
Toroidal Coil: An inductor or transformer whose core consists of a concentrically wound ribbon of magnetic material
Total Harmonic Distortion (THD): Total harmonic distortion is a measure of the how much a given audio device may distort a signal thr
Trace: The path of conductive material, usually copper, that conveys voltage or current from one point to a
Transducer: Synonym for Driver, speaker, or any electrical device that converts one type of energy into another.
Transformer: An electrical inductive device that can be used to provide circuitry isolation, signal coupling, imp
Transient: A short-lived aspect of a signal, such as the attack and decay of musical tones. A speaker that can
Transients: A non-repeating sound (such as percussion in music) or an abrupt change of voltage. How a speaker ha
Transistor: An active (commonly three terminal) solid-state device in which a larger output current is obtained
Travel Presets Or Tuning Memory: With this feature the receiver automatically loads it's presets with the strongest available signals
Tremolo: 1. A fluctuation of amplitude applied to a sound of constant frequency. Often incorrectly used, as i
Tube (Enclosure): A type of woofer enclosure consisting of a long tube with a woofer at one end, and a port or Passive
Tunable (Port): A port tube that can be adjusted in length to provide for optimizing, experimentally, the measured l
Tuned (Port): A port opening, radiator, or tube whose size is precisely specified by the overall design of the enc
Tweeter: Highs are reproduced by the tweeter, a small speaker mounted inside the woofer cones of multidriver
Two Ohm Stable: An X-ohm stable amplifier is an amp which is able to continuously power a load of X ohms per channel
Two-Way: Music's high frequencies are reproduced accurately by two-way, or coaxial, designs. These speakers u
Ultrasonic: Having frequencies above the range of human hearing, commonly considered to be 20 khz. Not to be con
Unfused Wire: Any section of wire between the power supply and a load that does not include the protection of a fu
Unison: In music, unison is used to describe an identity of pitch. When two or more tones are sounding at th
Unity Gain: A device or setting which does not change signal level, neither amplifying nor attenuating the signa
Unloading: The tendency of an enclosure to produce no spring or pressure on the woofer. Unloading produces an u
Used Equipment: Purchasing used equipment must be done with great care, especially in the case of speakers. An inspe
Variable Lp-Hp Filter: Crossover components which provide adjustable cut-off frequencies, and levels.
Vas: Volume Acoustic Suspension. A volume of air in an enclosure that has the same resistance characteris
Vas-Compliance: A measurement in liters or cubic feet of the volume of air that is equal to the compliance of the sp
Vca (Voltage Controlled Amplifier): An amplifier whose output is controlled by varying its voltage rather than by direct resistance (as
Vcf (Voltage Controlled Filter): An audio filter whose effective frequency band is controlled by varying its voltage rather than with
Vco (Voltage Controlled Oscillator): An oscillator whose frequency output is controlled by varying its voltage rather than with a potenti
Vented (Enclosure): A type of speaker system also known as Tuned, Tuned Port, Ported, or Bass Reflex. They are basically
Vibrato: Expressive effect which producers a fluctuation of pitch. A rapid, slight variation in pitch in sing
Video Shielding: A way of containing a speaker's magnetic energy inside its enclosure. This is usually achieved by pl
Voice Coil: The cylindrical coil of wire that moves in the magnetic field of a dynamic driver. The voice coil is
Voice Coil: The voice coil is the coil of wire fixed to a cylinder at the apex of the loudspeaker cone that inte
Voice-Matching: When speakers possess a similar timbre or tonal quality. Voice-matched (or timbre-matched) speakers
Voltage: Voltage is an electrical charge, or potential difference, between two points, one being of higher re
Voltage Drop: The amount of energy consumed when a device offers resistance in its circuit. The voltage (E) set up
Volume: Volume is obviously the most common word used to specify the control of relative loudness of sounds.
Vom: Volt-Ohm-Meter, sometimes called a Volt-Ohm-Milliammeter. A multimeter that measures voltage, ohms,
Watt: A unit of power. Named after James Watt for his contributions to the development of the steam engine
Watts: A measurement of power. In speakers, wattage is a term that indicates power-handling characteristics
Wav: A format for sound files developed jointly by Microsoft and IBM, and built into Windows 95 to XP whi
Wave: A single oscillation in matter (i.e., a sound wave). Waves move outward from a point of disturbance,
Wave Table Synthesis: A technique for generating sounds from digital signals. Wave table synthesis stores digital samples
Waveform: The waveform of a signal is a depiction of its instantaneous voltages versus time. In audio, for exa
Wavelength: The distance between one peak or crest of a sine wave and the next corresponding peak or crest. The
Weighting: When laboratory measurements are taken of audio gear, the literal, 'true' figures obtained often do
White Noise: Random noise with equal energy per frequency is called white noise. It tends to sound very bright an
Wide-Bit Stream Processing: This technology maintains 20-bit precision through the recording process, for clearer reproduction o
Windings: The wire in a voice coil that is wound around the former (also called a bobbin) to create a coil. Ge
Woofer: A type of driver that features a cone-shaped diaphragm, commonly used for producing the mid- and low
Woofer (Subwoofer): The bass and lower midrange sounds are reproduced by the woofer. To operate efficiently, a woofer's
Wow: Wow is a relatively slow variation in the frequency of reproduced sound caused by slow speed variati
X And Y Axis: In a graph or chart showing the realtionship of one acoustical phenomenon or measurement relative to
Xmax: A measure of a speaker cone's maximum Excursion (back and forth motion) in one direction while still
Y Cable Or Adapter: A cable used to split a signal into two parts or combine two signals into one. The term, Y Cable is
Z: The designation of impedance, as High Z, - 47,000 ohms, or low Z, - 4 ohms
Zero Bit Detection: A circuit in a D/A converter that monitors the digital audio bit stream. Upon encountering all bits
Zero Crossing: An analog waveform consists of two alternating voltage polarities (positive to negative to positive.
Zero Output: The absence of output signal or output power.

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