Glossary / Technology

Television (TV) Glossary

180 Rule: An editing principle of the continuity (or 180) system which dictates that cameras remain on one sid
A-D: Analog to digital conversion (or converter). Used at transmission end of broadcast.
Abstract Animation: An aesthetic tenet of animation which sees animation as consisting of lines, shapes and colors, abst
AC-3: The 5.1-channel sound system specified in the Standard for Digital-HDTV. Also known as 'Dolby Digita
Access Card: Also know as a smart card, is a removable credit card-size plastic card included with each satellite
Act (Segment): A portion or segment of the narrative presented between commercial breaks. Consists of one or more s
Active Display Area: The area on the face of the CRT that the image is displayed on.
Actor Movement: Typically referred to by the theatrical term, blocking.
Actualities: Events from the historical world used in news and sports programs.
Ad Hoc Network: A group of stations that is formed for a special purpose, such as the showing of a one-time TV progr
Additional Outlet (A-O): Receivers other than the primary one can be connected to the dish allowing other televisions in the
Additive Color: In video, the combination of red, green and blue phosphors to generate all other colors.
Addressable Resolution: The highest resolution signal that a display device (TV or monitor) can accept. Caution: Consumers s
Adjacency: A commercial or program that immediately follows or precedes another on the same TV station.
Advanced Television (ATV): Advanced Television is an earlier term used to describe the development and advance applications of
Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC): An acronym for Advanced Television Systems Committee, and the name of the DTV system used by broadca
Advertising Weight: A measure of advertising delivery, normally stated in terms of number of commercials, homes reached,
Aesthetic: A philosophy of the beautiful: criteria which define art (or television) as good or bad. Also used t
Affidavit: A notarized statement from a television station that confirms the commercial actually ran at the tim
Affiliate: A TV station, not owned by a network, that grants a network use of specific time periods for network
Alternate Delivery Systems (ADS): TV homes with unwired cable access are referred to as having Alternate Delivery Systems. The four co
Ambient Sound: Background sounds of a particular room or location.
American Federation Of Television And Radio Artists (AFTRA): An AFL-CIO union of broadcasting workers. Headquartered in N.Y., near the offices of the major netwo
American Women In Radio And Television (AWRT): An association in Washington D.C., of women who work in all areas of broadcasting.
Amplified Gain: Gain is the ratio of the amount of power you can reach in one direction from the antenna to the amou
Analog: The technology in use for more than 50 years to transmit conventional radio and TV signals. Vinyl re
Analog Sound: An electronic replica of a sound wave on audio or video tape: the sound wave is converted into an el
Analog TV: Analog TV is the NTSC Standard for traditional television broadcasts. Analog signals vary continuous
Anamorphic: A widescreen film process (under such trademark names as cinemascope and Panavision) used to create
Animation: The drawing (either electronically or on a physical medium) of motion. Usually animation is complete
Antagonist: Character and/or situation that hinders the protagonist from achieving his or her goal(s).
Anti-Naturalist Performance: Performance style in which the viewer is kept aware that the actor is pretending to be a character.
Aperture: In terms of a narrative: a conclusion with an ambiguous ending, and/or without resolution, without a
Arcing: A term used in television studio production to refer to the semi-circular sideways movement of the c
Aristocracy: In Marxism, the most elite social class--consisting of individuals who do not work, and hold power t
Artifacts: Unwanted visible effects in the picture created by disturbances in the transmission or image process
Aspect Ratio: The ratio of television picture width to height no matter the size of the screen. Since the 1940s TV
Audience Composition: The distribution of a station's audiences by demographic group.
Audience Duplication: The extent to which the audience of one station is exposed to that of another.
Audience Flow: A measure of the change in audience during and between programs. Audience flow shows the percentages
Audio-Video Jacks: Standard definition Satellite TV system receivers would normally include three jacks: one for the vi
Auteur Theory: Posits that a director is the author of a film/television program in the same manner that a writer i
Automated Measurement Of Lineups (AMOL): The technology which allows Nielsen Media Research (NMR) to track an identification code within loca
Automatic Dialogue Replacement (ADR): The replacement of lines of dialogue during post-production. Also known as looping.
Average Audience (AA): A widely used rating term, expressed as a percentage, to reflect viewing to the average minute of a
Average Quarter-Hour Audience: Estimated number of people who watch a program or station for a minimum of five minutes within a spe
Axis Of Action: In the continuity (or 180) system, the line of action around which the space of the scene is oriente
Azimuth: This refers to the horizontal direction of a satellite. It would have a different azimuth in Los Ang
Back Channel: A means of communication from users to content providers. As content providers are transmitting inte
Back Light: In the three-point lighting system, the source of illumination placed behind and above the actor. It
Balance: In video and film, the blending of three colors (red, green, and blue in video: yellow, magenta, and
Bandwidth: A range of frequencies used to transmit information such as picture and sound. For TV broadcasters,
Barn Doors: A term used in television production to describe the effect that occurs when a 4:3 image is viewed o
Barter: The exchange of quantities of commercial time for merchandise or services.
Barter Syndication: A program distribution method in which the syndicator retains and sells a portion of the show’s ad
Base: In film production terms, the celluloid backing of a piece of film to which the emulsion adheres. In
Baseband: The raw satellite TV signal before it is re-modulated to become a signal that is suitable for a TV.
Basic Cable: Channels received by cable subscribers at no extra charge, usually supported by advertising and smal
Beam: A satellite transmission pattern. It may be wide, narrow or spot. This affects the satellites footp
Billboard: A brief announcement, usually 3, 5 or 10 seconds in length, and usually earned by advertisers paying
Bird: An alternative name for a satellite.
Bit: Bit is short for 'binary' digit: it represents the smallest unit of data in digital systems: it can
Bit Rate: Measured as 'bits per second,' and used to express the rate at which data is transmitted or processe
Blackouts: A particular programming service may not be available in certain areas of the country - usually beca
Blocking: The actor's movement around a set: the director's incorporation of the actor into the mise-en-scene.
Blue Screens: On a newsroom set, areas of the background that are blue (or green), onto which live images or maps
Boom Operator: The sound technician who physically operates the overhead boom microphone.
Bourgeoisie: In Marxist terms, the middle class: owners of the means of production and employers of the proletari
Brand Development Index (BDI): A measure of the relationship of a specific brand's sales to population in a specific geographic are
Brand Parity: In the context of advertising, when all products are essentially the same. Contrast with a product'
Brechtian Performance: Anti-naturalist, confrontational performance style based in the theories of German playwright Bertol
Brightness (Luminance): In the context of television's image quality, how bright or dark a color is.
Broadband Services: High-speed cable Internet, digital cable and digital phone services all through a single pipeline.
Broadcast Calendar: This standard Broadcast calendar, created in the 1960s, is designed to conform to the uniform billin
Broadcast Coverage Area: The geographic area that receives a signal from an originating television station.
Broadcast Standards And Practices (BSP): The units within TV networks that make sure offensive material is not broadcast--TV's internal censo
Bug: A small network or station logo superimposed in a corner of the frame.
C-Band: Signal frequency range (3.70-4.20ghz).
Cable Television (Cable Tv Or Catv): A television distribution system whereby TV signals are transmitted via cable (insulated wire), rath
Caller Id: A feature in some satellite receivers that displays the caller's telephone number on your TV if the
Camera Obscura: A darkened chamber with a hole in one wall through which light enters, creating an image of the outd
Camera Operator: The person who actually handles the film or video camera.
Campaign: A specific advertising effort on behalf of a particular product or service which extends for a speci
Cardioid Microphone: A unidirectional microphone with most of its sensitivity aimed toward the front, and a pickup patter
Castle Rock Broadcast Center: The facility which provides directv with television reception, playback, encoding, and up-linking.
Category Development Index (CDI): A measure of the relationship of a specific category's sales to population in a specific geographic
Cathode Ray Tube (CRT): A television picture tube. The cathode ray excites the pixels to create the video image.
Cause-Effect Chain: In narrative structure, the way one event leads to (causes) another and is the result (effect) of a
Cel (Celluloid): A transparent sheet of plastic, on which images are drawn and painted in the production of animation
Channel: A 6 mhz (bandwidth) section of broadcasting spectrum allocated for one analog NTSC transmission.
Check Switch: Running a check switch procedure starts a series of tests in DISH Network satellite TV system receiv
Chiaroscuro: A low-key lighting style, usually in reference to theatrical productions or the dark paintings of Re
Chroma Key: An electronic special effects process, specific to video, making a single color (usually blue or gre
Chrominance: The level of saturation of a color: the color's purity, how much or little grayness is mixed with it
Cinemascope: A widescreen, anamorphic film process with an aspect ratio of 2.35 to 1.
Cinematographer: The person overseeing all aspects of the film image--including lighting and the operation of the cam
Cinematography: The process of making a film image, and the characteristics of the film image.
Clarke Belt: Named after its founder Arthur C. Clarke, the Clarke Belt is an orbit used by satellites at a height
Classical Hollywood Cinema: A conventional style of filmmaking with a particular model of narrative structure, editing technique
Classical Period: In the history of theatrical cinema, the 1920s-50s when the Hollywood studio system of film producti
Cliff Effect: A characteristic that causes DTV reception to deteriorate dramatically with a small change in signal
Close Miking: The positioning of a microphone very close to the performer's mouth--often used by radio and TV anno
Close-Up (Cu): A framing that presents a close view of an object or person--filling the frame and separating it or
Closed Captioning: Text stream included in broadcast signal that provides narrative description of dialogue, action, so
Closure: Occurs when enigmas opened at the beginning of a program and throughout are resolved: all of the nar
Clutter: Excessive amounts of advertising carried by media vehicles. Term refers to the total amount of adver
Co-Op Advertising: TV advertising paid for jointly by a manufacturer and retailer.
Code: A set of rules: an historically and/or culturally based set of conventions.
Codec: Short for 'coder-decoder'. A device that converts analog video and audio signals into a digital form
COFDM: Acronym for 'Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Mulitiplexing,' the DTV standard used in Europe (ak
Color Announcer: A type of television sports announcer: often he or she is a former athlete and/or coach, with first-
Component (HD) Video Connection: The output of a high definition video device (such as an HDTV set-top box), or the input of an HDTV
Composite Video: An analog, encoded video signal (such as NTSC) that includes vertical and horizontal synchronizing i
Composite Video Output: The monitor receives only one signal from the computer. The monitor must then decode the signal to d
Compositing: The post-production combination of two or more video/film/digital sources in a single image.
Compression: A method of electronically reducing the number of bits required to store or transmit data within a s
Computer Input: Some HDTV sets have an input (typically SVGA or VGA) that allows the TV set to be connected to a com
Computer-Generated Imagery (CGI): Images which are created digitally, usually through computer modeling with wireframe objects.
Confirmation: A statement (verbal or written) given to advertising agencies by a network, station, or rep firm whe
Content Analysis: An empirical method of analysis which selects a specific textual component, counts and codes the num
Continuity: Scheduling advertising consistently over a period of time without interruption in order to build or
Continuity Editing (Invisible Editing): A style of editing that creates a continuity of space and time out of the fragments of scenes contai
Continuity Person: The person in a production responsible for maintaining consistency in all details from one shot to t
Continuity System (180 System): Set of editing conventions that evolved from Hollywood classicism, in which shots are arranged so th
Convergence: Convergence occurs when two previously independent entities become one. In Digital Television, conve
Copyright: The exclusive legal rights to perform or sell a song, book, script, photograph, etc. To use copyrigh
Cost Per Mill (CPM): The advertising rate charged to TV sponsors, which is quantified per thousand viewers. 'Mil' equals
Cost Per Thousand (CPM): The cost of reaching 1,000 homes or individuals with a specific advertising message. CPM is a standa
Cost-Per-Rating Point (CPP): Used by most media planners in developing and allocating market budgets and setting rating point goa
Coverage: The percentage of homes or persons receiving a particular broadcast signal within a specific geograp
Craning: A movement deriving its name from the mechanical crane on which a camera may be placed. A crane shot
Credit: A cash deduction for the loss of advertising time when a commercial is not aired or is improperly sc
Cross-Fade: Akin to a dissolve, one sound fades out while the other fades in, resulting in a brief overlap.
Cultural Studies (Ethnography): A critical approach which argues that viewers decode television texts based on their specific ideolo
Cumulative Audience (Cume): It is the total non-duplicated audience for one or a series of telecasts, programs, messages, or tim
D-A: Conversion of digital to analog signals. The device is also referred to as DAC (D/A converter). In o
Datacasting: Digital television allows for the transmission of not only digital sound and images, but also digita
Dayparts: The time segments that divide the TV day for ad scheduling purposes. These segments generally reflec
Decoder: A unit similar to today's cable boxes, which is capable of receiving and decoding DTV broadcasts. A
Decoding: In cultural studies, the reader/viewer's interpretation of a text that has been encoded with meaning
Decoding (Video Capture): The process of converting TV interlaced video to noninterlaced RGB video.
Deep Focus: When all planes (foreground, middle-ground and background) of an image are in focus.
Deep Space Blocking: A type of blocking associated with single-camera productions, particularly those shot on location. T
Definition: In terms of the image quality of film and television, definition refers to the capability of the vis
Demographics: Audience composition based on various socioeconomic characteristics such as age, sex, income, educat
Depth Of Field: The range in front of and behind the focus distance that is also in focus.
Designated Market Area (DMA): Represents an exclusive geographic area of counties in which the home market stations are estimated
Dialogue: Speech among characters, which does not usually address the viewer. Also, a type of interview in whi
Diegesis: The world in which the narrative is set. In other words, the world fictional characters inhabit.
Diegetic Sound: Dialogue, music and sound effects that occur in the diegetic space of the television program. I.e.,
Diegetic Space: The physical world in which the narrative action of the television program takes place.
Digital Audio Broadcasting: A broadcast standard which describes the method of transmitting digital audio.
Digital Audio Workstation (DAW): A computer-based system for digitally editing sound.
Digital Cable: A service provided by many cable providers (Time Warner and insight both offer it) which offers view
Digital Compression: A process of translating video images into a digital code which takes up less transmission space tha
Digital Light Processing (DLP): A microdisplay technology invented by Texas Instruments, DLP is based on a digital micromirror devic
Digital Sound: A technology (e.g., cds) that converts sound into numbers: this allows computers to process and/or c
Digital Television (DTV): Transmitting a broadcast signal by encoding it as 0s and 1s the digital code used in computers. DTV
Digital Tuner Or Digital Receiver: A digital tuner serves as the decoder required to receive and display digital broadcasts. Some digit
Digital Versatile Disk (DVD): DVD, which once stood for Digital Video Disk or Digital Versatile Disk, is the next generation of op
Digital Video (DV): Any video format that relies on digital technology for recording and/or editing. For example, video
Digital Video Effects (DVE): Special effects created with digital, computer-based technology. Compare with electronic effects.
Digital Video Recorder (DVR): Refers to "digital video recorder," also known as "personal video recorder." A DVR or PVR records br
Diplexer: A device that combines two input signals into a single output. It may also be used the other way to
Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS): A television technology that delivers signals directly from a satellite to a home through the use of
Direct Broadcast Via Satellite (DBS): Subscribers receive programs via a small satellite dish. The signal is digitized and compressed via
Direct Response: Advertising that seeks direct and prompt response from the viewer by means of exhibiting telephone n
Director: A person who is in charge of a television show, on the set or in a control booth, during the actual
Directv System: A directv satellite TV System, trademarked for the consumer hardware and created to receive directv
Direcway: Direcway is the brand name original used to deliver satellite internet access by Hughes Networking.
Discourse: Socially-based belief structures. The viewer brings discourses to the reading of the television text
Discrepancy: A difference between station billing and the original order: requires a discussion between the buyer
Diseeqc: Diseqc™ (Digital Satellite Equipment Control) system, is a communication bus between satellite TV
Dish 1000: The DISH 1000 is a triple LNBF satellite dish that provides reception the using a dish face of 19'(H
Dish 500: A DISH 500 is a multi-satellite dish used to receive DISH Network programming. Some programming for
Dish Network System: DISH Network Satellite TV System, trademarked for the consumer hardware and created to receive DISH
Dissolve: A special effect wherein simultaneously one shot fades out as the next fades in, so that the two ima
Distanciation: A technique of Brechtian performance style wherein the actor retains the sense of him/herself as an
Dolby Digital: Six-channel digital audio standard that is part of the U.S. digital television standard: also called
Dolby Digital - AC-3 Compatible: Formerly known as Dolby AC-3, or audiocoding-3, delivers the movie experience through a maximum of 5
Dolby Pro Logic: Dolby Surround technology delivers four channels of audio - Left, Center, Right, and Mono Surround -
Dolby Surround: Or Dolby Stereo. Four audio channels (left, center, right, and surround) converted to two channels r
Dolly: A wheeled camera support which permits a rolling camera movement. In conventional television usage,
Dominant Ideology: In Marxism, the system of beliefs about the world propagated and supported by the society's ruling c
Dot Pitch: The distance of one phosphor dot to the nearest phosphor dot of the same color on the adjacent line.
Downconvert: In DTV, the conversion from a higher-resolution input signal number to a lower one. For example, som
Downconverting: Process by which a high-definition signal is converted to a standard definition picture.
Downlink: A signal’s path from satellite to antenna.
Drop-In Ad: A local commercial inserted into a national program, or, more generally, an advertising message inse
Dual Lnb: A dual LNB has two coax connections. You can operate up to two satellite television receivers with a
Dubbing: The replacement of one voice for another.
Duopoly: An instance where two stations in the same designated market area are owned by the same party. Thoug
Dynamic Range: A range of sounds from soft to loud. A measurement of the limits of microphones, recording and playb
E-Business: The transfer of data from one computer to another. When computers connect, trading partners can cond
Echostar: The company that owns and operates DISH Network.
Editech: The first electronic editing system for videotape--invented and marketed by Ampex.
Effects Theory: A type of communication theory (e.g., hypodermic needle concept) which proposes that, because viewer
Efficiency: The relationship of media cost to audience delivery.
Electron Gun: A mechanical device, located in the rear of a television's picture tube, which fires an electron bea
Electronic Effects: Special effects (including fades, dissolves and keying) created on video using an analog special eff
Electronic Guns: The device in the CRT that produces the electron beam that is attracted to the phosphors on the face
Electronic News Gathering (ENG): The video recording of news events or actualities.
Electronic Program Guide (EPG): A chronological listing of all available programming covering an extended time period (typically cov
Elevation: How high a satellite is from the horizon. The angle of elevation refers to the upward tilt of a sate
Emotional Memory: Technique of method acting wherein the actor draws upon memories of previous emotions that match the
Empiricism: A theoretical approach which advocates the understanding of a problem through systematic and control
Emulsion: The mixture of photosensitive chemicals with a gelatin medium attached to the base of a piece of fil
Encoding: In cultural studies, the creation of meaning within a text by a cultural institution such as the tel
Enhanced TV: Or enhanced digital television (EDTV) (also known as datacasting). A term used for certain digital o
Epic Theater: Brechtian theory of theatrical presentation in which the viewer is alienated from the character.
Equal Time: The FCC’s Equal Opportunities Rule (part of Section 315 of the Communications Act) states that if
Establishing Shot: A long shot which positions the character within his or her environment, and helps to establish the
Expository Mode: Mode of television that presents an argument about the historical world: the 'facts' of that world a
Exposure: A person's physical contact with an advertising medium or message. It can be in a visual and/or an a
Exterior Scenes: Scenes set outdoors, often in particular location settings.
Extreme Close Up (XCU): A framing that presents a view closer than a conventional close-up--e.g., a shot of an eye that fill
Extreme Long Shot (XLS): A framing that presents a distant view of an object or person--e.g., an aerial shot of a car on a st
Eyeline Match: An editing principle of the continuity system which begins with a shot of a character looking in a s
Fade Out-Fade In: A special effect often used for scene-to-scene transition. In a fade out the image darkens until the
False Consciousness: In Marxist terms, a counterfeit image of the world determined by one's social class.
Federal Communications Commission (FCC): An independent United States government agency, directly responsible to Congress. The FCC was establ
Feed Horn: A device which collects the signals at the focus of the satellite dish and channels them to the LNB.
Feminism: A critical approach which concentrates on gender discourse, the manner in which the male-female rela
Field (Of Video): Each frame of video in the PAL or NTSC signal consists of two fields. Television creates a picture t
Fill Light: In the three-point lighting system, a source of illumination used to fill the shadows created by the
Film Stock: The specific type of film used to record images.
Filter: In lighting, a colored gel placed in front of a light source. In cinematography or videography, an o
Fine Grain: A type of film stock in which the grain is smaller, resulting in a higher image definition.
Fire Wire: A low-cost digital interface originated by Apple. It can transport data at very high speeds. It is w
Five Lnb: A dish with five lnbs and four outputs. This dish looks at satellites in five different orbital posi
Fixed Dish System: A satellite TV system in which the dish does not have to be moved. Directv and Dish Network are fixe
Flashback: A disruption of the chronological presentation of events, in which an event from the past is present
Flashforward: A disruption of the chronological presentation of events, in which an event from the future is prese
Flight: A scheduling tactic that alternates periods of advertising with periods of no activity.
Flow: Television's sequence of programs, commercials, news breaks, and so on. The overall flow of televisi
Focal Length: The distance from the lens' optical center to its focal point, usually measured in millimeters. Ther
Focal Plane: The plane within a film camera where the light strikes the film.
Focal Point: In a camera lens, that spot where the light rays, bent by the lens, converge before expanding again
Focus: The adjustment of the camera lens so that the image is sharp and clear.
Focus Distance: The distance from the camera to the object being focused on.
Foley: A post-production process wherein sound effects are fabricated for a filmed/videotaped scene while t
Footprint: An area of the earth that is able to receive a particular satellite’s signals. This depends on the
Format: In film, refers to the film width itself and is measured in millimeters (e.g., super-8, 16mm and 35m
Fragmentation (Audience): The increasing number of audience subdivisions which, together, constitute total TV usage. Televisio
Frame (Of Video): A frame of video consists of two fields. Each second of NTSC video consists of 29.97 frames (usually
Framing: Determines what the viewer can and cannot see due to the manipulation of the camera frame (the edge
Frequency: The number of times per second that a signal fluctuates. The international unit for frequency is the
Frequency Range: The high end and low limits of the frequencies that can be used with your monitor. Usually pertains
Frequency Response: A range of sound frequencies from low to high. A measurement of the limits of microphones, recording
Full Power TV Station: Any analog television station operating on channels 2-69 that is not licensed as a Class A, Low Powe
Full-Scan: The capability to increase the size of the image to the edge of the monitor bezel.
Function: In narrative study, a single action or character attribute. Based in Russian Formalism and the work
Gel: A piece of plastic or gelatin placed in front of a light source to change its color.
Genlock: A feature that keeps two or more video streams in synchronization, often combined with a graphic ove
Genre: Groupings of television programs defined by their narrative structure, thematic content, and style o
Geo-Targeting: The process of identifying a brand’s geographic areas of opportunity, or the markets (dmas) in whi
Geographic Targeting: The process of identifying a brand’s geographic areas of opportunity, or the markets (dmas) in whi
Geostationary: Satellites orbit the Earth 22,300 miles above the Equator and rotate at the same relative speed and
Glitches: Any oddity in a video signal.
Grain: The silver halide crystals suspended in the emulsion of a piece of film. When struck by light and ch
Graphic Overlay Titling: The superimposition of a computer image over a video signal (the computer image typically is keyed t
Gross Rating Points (GRP): The sum of individual telecast ratings on a total program basis or advertiser commercial schedule, w
Hand-Held: A technique in which the camera is held by the camera operator, rather than fixed to a camera mount
Hard Light: Direct, undiffused light: the result is the casting of harsh, distinct shadows.
Hard News: Refers to news stories that examine events which affect society as a whole (e.g., national politics
Hard Reset: A hard reset is the same as rebooting a computer.
Hd-Dvd: High-definition digital video disc. Several formats have been proposed for these high-capacity DVD's
Hdcp: High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection. Copy-protection scheme developed by Intel to be used in c
Hdmi: High-Definition Multimedia Interface. USB-like digital video connectivity standard designed as a suc
Hdtv: HDTV, or High Definition Television, is a digital television format that combines high-resolution vi
Hiatus: Period in a campaign when an advertiser's schedule is suspended for a short period of time, after wh
High Angle: A shot in which the camera is placed higher than the filmed actor or object, so that the camera look
High Definition Television (HDTV): The generally agreed upon definition of HDTV is approximately twice the vertical and horizontal pict
High Definition Television (HDTV) Resolution: 720p - The picture is 1280x720 pixels, sent at 60 complete frames per second. 1080i - The picture is
High-Key Lighting: A lighting style in which the ratio in intensity of key light to fill light is small. The result is
Historical World (Historical Reality): The reality that is processed, selected, ordered, and interpreted by nonfiction television programs.
Horizonal Sync Frequency: The number of times per the number of times per electron beam can trace a pattern like this
Horizontal Frequency: The inverse of the time it takes for a monitor to scan from the beginning of one line to the beginni
Households Using Television (HUT): The percentage of all television households in a survey area with one or more sets in use during a s
Hue: A specific color from within the visible spectrum of white light: e.g., red, green, blue.
Hypercardioid Microphone: A highly unidirectional microphone, for which the pickup pattern is narrower than that of a cardioid
Hypodermic Needle Theory: An effects theory which purports that the viewer is passive, and directly and immediately affected b
I-O: Input/output. Typically refers to sending information or data signals to and from devices. Often use
Icon: Generally speaking, an object that represents a theme or an aspect of the character or the like. In
Iconography: The objects that signify character and themes of the narrative.
Ideological Criticism: An area of television criticism, concerned with class and gender representation, that studies societ
IEEE 1394 (Firewire): A digital interface developed by the IEEE 1394 working group. Transports data at 100, 200, or 400 Mb
Illusion Of Depth: The ability of the two-dimensional television image to create an illusion whereby space seems to rec
Impressions: Number of homes or individuals exposed to an advertisement or group of advertisements.
Improvisation: Technique of method acting style used mostly in rehearsal: the actor puts him/herself into the mind
Impulse Pay Per View (PPV): The ability to buy a particular program on a last-minute decision. Pushing the 'buy' button on the r
Independent Station: Stations not affiliated with any network, usually refers to commercial stations only.
Indexical Sign (Index): In semiotics, a type of sign in which the signifier is physically caused by the signified. For examp
Industry Standard: A term applied to a machine or format that is commonly used within a certain area of production.
Infomercial: A television commercial that is similar in appearance to a news program or talk show format, usually
Interactive Mode: Type of television text in which the historical world is mixed with that of the video/film maker--ac
Interactive Television: An anticipated use of television with interactive content and enhancements, enabling the viewer to i
Interconnect: Two or more cable systems distributing a commercial signal simultaneously, and offering a multiple s
Interior Scenes: Scenes set inside, in particular on studio sets, though also including location interiors.
Interlace: The method of presenting a video display a half picture at a time, showing only every other line at
Interlaced Scan: The means by which traditional television picture tubes create images on screen. An interlaced-scann
Interlaced Scanning: In a television display, interlaced scanning refers to the process of re-assembling a picture from a
Interlaced Video: TV frames consist of two fields of alternating lines that are scanned onto the picture display unit
Intertextuality: The intertextual, self-reflexive quality--as when one television text (e.g., a commercial) refers to
Jump Cut: An editing technique wherein one shot does not match the preceding shot, resulting in a disruptive g
Kbps: Kbps stands for kilobits per second and refers to the speed of a signal transmission.
Key Light: In the three-point lighting system, the main source of illumination and the most intense light on th
Keyframe: In animation, the essential frames used to construct a character's movement. If the animation is com
Keying: An special effects process, specific to video, in which an image or text is inserted into another im
Kinescope: A film copy of a television program: made by aiming the film camera at a television screen. Used dur
Ku-Band: Signal frequency range between 11 and 14 ghz: it is often used by communications satellites.
L-Band: An L-Band is the frequency range from 0.5 to 1.5 ghz. All satellite TV systems use this frequency (
Laugh Track: A soundtrack of pre-recorded laughter, usually added in the post-production process to a comedy prog
Lavaliere Microphone: A small microphone often clipped to a performer's tie or shirt.
Lead: In news stories, the reporter's opening comments--designed to capture viewer attention.
Lead-In: A program that immediately precedes another program on the same station or network.
Lead-Out: A program that immediately follows another program.
Letterbox: A process by which a widescreen film is presented on video. The top and bottom of the video frame is
Letterbox Mode: A method of presenting widescreen images on a standard screen television. In order to preserve the a
Lighting Color: Light may be 'colored' by placing a filter or gelatin in front of a light source.
Lighting Diffusion: The hardness or softness of a light source. Hard light casts a sharp, definite shadow.
Lighting Direction: The positioning of lights relative to the object being shot. The norm for lighting direction is thre
Lighting Intensity: The power of a light source. Regarding the relative intensity of lighting sources, see three-point l
Limited Effects Theory: A type of communication theory (e.g., social learning theory, vicarious catharsis theory) that regar
Line Doubling: A method, through special circuitry, to modify an NTSC interlaced picture to create an effect simila
Linear Perspective: A method of drawing or painting that converts the three dimensions of reality into two dimensions. O
Lip Sync: Synchronizing a performance to recorded speech or music: most frequently found in music videos, wher
Liquid Crystal Display: An LCD television or monitor uses liquid crystals that act as 'shutters' within the television scree
Live Plus Ratings: Nielsen Media Research term for live ratings plus seven-day DVR playback activity.
Live Ratings: Nielsen Media Research term for ratings reported as strictly live with no DVR playback activity.
Live-On-Tape: A video production that is recorded live, with most of the editing done while the scenes transpire (
LNB-LNBF: Low Noise Block down-converter with integrated feed: amplifies received signals and converts them fr
Local Marketing Agreement (LMA): An agreement between two owners in which one markets and sells advertising for the other.
Local Spot: The advertising purchased in a market and aimed only at the audience in that market.
Location Settings: Pre-existing settings that are chosen as backgrounds for television programs.
Locks and Limits: Allows you to restrict viewing of rated movies (based on the motion picture rating system) or to loc
Long Shot (LS): A framing that presents entire objects or persons--situating them in a setting.
Lossy Compression: Reducing the total data rate by discarding data that is not critical. Both video and audio for DTV t
Loudness (Volume): How loud or soft a sound is. See dynamic range.
Low Angle: A shot in which the camera is lower than the filmed object: thus the camera looks up at the actor/ob
Low-Key Lighting: A lighting style wherein the key light is so much more intense than the fill light that there is a h
Luminance: (Light or Brightness) In video signals the component that includes information about its brightness.
Magnetic Tape: A ribbon of plastic with a coating on it that is sensitive to magnetic impulses created by electrici
Make-Good: A spot offered by a station in place of a regularly scheduled announcement that did not run or was i
Manifest Content: In a content analysis of a television text, the characters and their actions.
Masking: A non-anamorphic widescreen film process. In masked films, blackened horizontal bands are placed acr
Match Cut: An editing principle of the continuity system which maintains continuity by fitting ('matching') the
Match-On-Action: An editing technique of the continuity system wherein a cut is placed in the midst of an action, so
Means Of Production: Marx's term for the locations (factories and the like) at which goods are produced and men and women
Media Mix: The distribution of time and money allocated among TV, radio, print and Internet advertising that ma
Media Text: Any item in the mass media (e.g., a TV commercial or program, film, magazine, interview, public appe
Medium Close Up (MCU): A framing in between medium shot and close-up.
Medium Long Shot (MLS): A framing in between long shot and medium shot.
Medium Shot (MS): A framing that presents a moderately close view of an object or person. Conventionally, a TV medium
Megabyte: One million bytes (actually 1,048,576): one thousand kilobytes.
Method: Naturalist performance style which encourages the actor to become the character, at which point the
Metro Area: A U.S. Government definition: the counties that comprise each Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area
Microphone (Mike): Device used to record sound. The pickup pattern of a microphone may be omnidirectional or cardioid.
Microwave Multi Distribution System (MMDS): Distributes signals by microwave. Home receiver picks up signal, then distributes via internal wirin
Mise-En-Scene: The staging of the action for the camera. All of the physical objects in front of the camera and the
Mixer: A machine that blends various sound sources.
Mode Of Production: An aesthetic style of shooting that relies upon a particular technology and is governed by a certain
Mode Of Representation: Manner in which a nonnarrative television program depicts historical reality and addresses itself to
Modem: Modulator/demodulator. A device that transforms a typical two-level computer signal into a form suit
Motion-Caption Device: A system by which the movement of three-dimensional objects or humans is traced by a computer.
Motivation: In narrative structure, a catalyst that starts the story's progression--a reason for the story to be
Movie Of The Week (MOW): Industry shorthand for any film produced specifically for television and not shown initially in thea
Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG): It refers to a set of standards as defined up by the Moving Pictures Experts Group, and that defines
Mpeg2: Compression standards for moving images and audio set by the Motion Pictures Expert Group (MPEG), an
Mpeg4: This newer version of MPEG compression is used for delivering high-definition local programming in s
Multi-Satellite Dish: It is often necessary for consumers to use a multi-satellite TV system, such as the directv Oval 5 L
Multi-Switch (Or Multi-Satellite Switch Or Matrix-Switch): If you want to hook up more receivers than your dish can accommodate, you can use a multiswitch to s
Multi-Track Recording: In the sound editing process, recordings are digitally or electronically divided into four (or many
Multicasting: The ability to send more than one program or data service within the allotted channel spectrum. Digi
Multichannel Video Programming Distributors (MVPDS): A multichannel video program distributor is an entity such as a cable operator, a BRS/EBS provider,
Multiple-Camera Production: A mode of production unique to television wherein two or more cameras are used to record the scene,
Multiscan Monitor: Monitors that are capable of displaying a range of resolutions or graphics standards having differen
Music Television: Generally refers to a system, such as a cable or satellite service (e.g., MTV, CMT), through which m
Music Video: A visual representation of or accompaniment to a song or other musical selection that usually exists
Musical Director: Person who selects and arranges the music for a program.
Must Carry: As of 2002, the FCC established a condition that if a satellite TV service provider is going to carr
Mythic Analysis: An interpretive strategy of genre analysis that approaches genres in terms of archetypes, stories sh
Narration (Voice-Over): When a character's or omniscient narrator's voice is heard over an image.
Narrative Enigma: A question that underpins a story and will (in classical films) or will not (in soap opera) be answe
Narrative Function: A specific action or an attribute of a character in a narrative--according to the narrative theory o
Narrative Image: A particular representation of a program created by advertising and promotion in order to entice vie
National Association Of Broadcasters (NAB): A non-profit organization supported by TV and radio broadcasters whose purpose is to demonstrate to
National Rural Telecommunications Cooperative (Nrtc): This organization provides telecommunications services to rural electric and rural telephone coopera
National Spot: A form of broadcast advertising in which national advertisers, through their agency or buying servic
National Standards And Testing Program (NSTP): The NSTP is a program created to provide basic installation training to satellite TV systems install
National Television System Committee (NTSC): A committee established by various manufacturers of television equipment in order to develop a set o
Naturalistic Animation: An aesthetic tenet of animation which advocates that animation replicate live-action film/video as m
Naturalistic Performance: Performance style in which the actor attempts to create a character that the audience will accept as
Negotiated Reading: In cultural studies, the interpretation of the text that partially accepts and partially rejects the
Network: A connecting system which allows simultaneous telecasting of a single origination by a number of sta
Nielsen Media Research (NMR): A firm involved in local and national measurement of the TV audience: also involved in other researc
Nielsen Station Index (NSI): Local market audience measurement reports.
Nielsen Television Index (NTI): National network audience measurement reports.
Noise Figure: A measure of the performance (noise contribution) of an LNB in decibels: the lower the better.
Non-Narrative Television: Televisual texts (e.g., news and sports programs, game shows, some commercials) that present reality
Nondiegetic Sound: Sound that does not occur in the diegetic space (the characters' world), such as music that is added
Noninterlaced Video: Each line is scanned during each total vertical (full) screen refresh. Computer monitors use typical
Nonlinear Editing (NLE): Editing performed on a computer, in which shots do not have to be placed one after the other (i.e.,
Normal Lens: A type of focal length that seems to most closely approximate the human eye's range of vision (in ac
ntegrated Receiver Decoder (IRD): Satellite TV system receiver with a built-in decoder for unscrambling subscription channels. It is u
O and O Station: A television station owned and operated by a national network.
Objective Correlative: An object which comes to represent an aspect of a character--e.g., Bart Simpson's skateboard represe
Observational Mode: Type of television text wherein a television producer's presence is not obvious to the viewer, and h
Offset: Type of dish with the focus and feed-horn below the center of the dish.
Omnidirectional Microphone: A microphone that is able to pick up sound equally from all directions.
Oppositional Reading: In cultural studies, the interpretation of the text that is wholly contrary to the text's dominant m
Optimization: Term used for a method of media planning using computer programs that develop the optimum media mix
Orbit: A scheduling method in which the advertiser's commercials are rotated among different programs and/o
Orbital Slots: Orbital slots refer to the location of satellites around the globe. Their are 6 main slots used for
Over The Air (OTA): This is the acronym commonly used to describe standard television broadcast signals received by a ro
Over-The-Air: Referencing analog or digital signals sent out in the open air by broadcast staions, and received mo
Overhead Boom Microphone: Held on a long arm by a boom operator, positioned above the actors' heads and out of view of the cam
Overscan: The TV approach of bleeding the video signal off the edges of the picture display unit. When convert
Package: A combination of commercial units offered as a group to an advertiser. A package is generally priced
Pan And Scan: A method used to crop the picture frame of the original source material produced in a 'wide-screen'
Panning: The action of physically rotating the camera left and right, on an imaginary vertical axis. Only the
Pantomime: A style of naturalist performance in which the actor presents the character with specific gestures t
Paradigmatic Structure: In semiotics, a manner in which signs are organized and meaning created. Paradigmatic structures cre
Parallel Cable: A multi-conductor cable carrying simultaneous transmission of digital data bits.
Parallel Data: Transmission of data bits, in groups, along a collection of wires (called a bus). A parallel bus may
Parallel Digital: A digital video interface which uses twisted pair wiring and 25-pin D connectors to convey the bits
Parental Lockout: Parental Lockout allows users to set a password to control access to programming based on channel, r
Pay-Per-View Tv (PPV): A system in which payment is made for a single showing of a program. Subscribers of the pay-televisi
Pcm: Pulse code modulation. Sounds are reproduced by modulating the playback rate and amplitude of the sa
Pedestalling: The raising or lowering of the camera on the vertical post of the camera support. Pedestal is also t
Penetration: A proportion of households owning televisions or subscribing to cable.
Perfect Fit: In the study of television stars, a matching of a particular role's characteristics to a star's poly
Personal People Meter (PPM): Hardware currently being tested by Arbitron. The PPM is a pager-sized device that is worn by consume
Personal Video Recorder (PVR): Pvrs are digital devices that use a hard drive instead of videotape as the recording medium. Pvrs bl
Persons Using Television (PUT): A measurement of the total number of people in the target audience who are watching television for f
Phase Alternate Line (PAL): The television broadcast standard in Europe and parts of Asia: (excluding France and Eastern Europe,
Phosphor: Phosphorescent substance of red, green and blue that emit light when activated by electrons.
Pickup Pattern: In microphones, the shape of the space in which the microphone is sensitive to sound. Common pattern
Piggyback: The back-to-back scheduling of two or more brand commercials of one advertiser in network or spot po
Pillarbox: The effect of displaying a traditional (4:3 aspect ratio) image on a widescreen (16:9) monitor. In o
Pilot: A program, sometimes a made-for-TV movie, which introduces a new series.
Pitch: How high or low a sound is. See frequency response.
Pixel: A combination of the words ''picture'' and 'element ' A pixel is the smallest discernible sample of
Pixelization: Pixelization occurs due to errors in decoding the MPEG bit stream where areas or patches of color ap
Pixels (Phosphors): Phosphorescent dots, arranged in horizontal lines on the television screen, which produce the video
Plasma: Plasma tvs are comprised of a bunch of tiny independent cells that produce the red, green, and blue
Plasma Display: A Plasma TV Display uses hundreds-of-thousands of miniature, embedded cells to produce a picture. Ea
Play-By-Play Announcer: A type of television sports announcer, usually a professional broadcaster, who functions as narrator
Plug And Play: A security card or cable card you get from a cable operator that decrypts scrambled cable signals on
Pod: A group of commercials, promos or announcements contained in a television program break.
Point-Of-View Shot: A shot in which the camera is physically situated very close to a character's position: thus the res
Polysemy: Literally, many meanings. Refers to television's ability to communicate contradictory or ambivalent
Post Buy Analysis: An analysis of schedule performance after it runs: offers a means of measuring a media buy as run ve
Post-Production: Everything (e.g., editing, sound effects) that transpires after the program itself has been shot.
Pre-Emption: An omission of an announcement from a previously confirmed broadcast schedule: the advertiser is eit
Pre-Production: The written planning stages of the program (script preparation, budgeting, etc.).
Preferred Reading: In cultural studies, the interpretation of the text that is stressed by the text itself. Marxists pr
Problematic Fit: In the study of television stars, a complete mismatch of a particular role's characteristics with a
Product Placement: The appearance of a trademarked product (e.g., Budweiser beer or Apple computers) in a program-when
Production: The shooting of the program itself.
Progressive Scan: The way a television decodes an image – also known as non-interlaced, the odd and even fields are
Projection: Often referred to as big screens, projection tvs come in two different styles: front and rear. Front
Proletariat: In Marxist terms, the working class: this least powerful group works to survive, selling its labor t
Promotion: A type of media text (e.g., an appearance on a talk show) generated by the star and his or her repre
Protocol: Set of syntax rules defining exchange of data including items such as timing, format, sequencing, er
Pseudomonologue: Type of interview in which the interviewer and his or her questions are not evident in the text: onl
PSIP: Program and System Information Protocol. A part of the ATSC digital television specification that en
Psychographics: Audience analysis on the basis of psychological factors such as lifestyles, values, and interests an
Public Domain: Material (e.g., a piece of music) that is not copyrighted, which may be used in TV programs without
Publicity: A type of media text (e.g., an unauthorized biography) that presents information outside the control
PVR: A Personal Video Recorder PVR satellite receiver) has a built in hard drive for digital recording of
Quad Lnbf: A combination LNBF and multi-sat switch component for DISH 500 systems can accommodate up to 4 DISH
Quarter Hour Audience: Individuals viewing a station at least five minutes in a specific 15-minute period.
R-F Connectors: An RF coaxial cable type output on a satellite TV set-top box to connect with old TV sets that do no
Racking Focus (Pulling Focus): Shifting the focus from foreground to background, or vice versa.
Rain Fade: The loss of signal from the satellite during a heavy rain. This happens more or less to all DBS syst
Raster: The overall area that is scanned by the electron guns.
Rating: A percentage of total households or population owning tvs who are tuned to a particular program or s
Rating: In the context of TV ratings, the percentage of all homes with television sets that are tuned to a s
Rating Limit: The rating limit is set by the customer using the main menu. When a system lock is active, this lim
Rating Point: A value equal to one percent of a population or universe.
Ratings: Based on a random sample of television viewers, the calculated amount and percentage of viewers watc
Re-Establishing Shot: A long shot which once again positions the character(s) within the environment of the scene, helping
Reach: The number of unduplicated households or people exposed to a program, group of programs, or an adver
Reading: The viewer's active interpretation of a text--whether written (e.g., a book) or visual (e.g., a tele
Reciever: A unit similar to today's cable boxes, which is capable of receiving and decoding DTV broadcasts. A
Reflexive Mode: Type of nonnarrative television text which draws the viewer's attention to the processes, techniques
Refresh: One vertical scan.
Remote Control Device (RCD): A device that allows one to operate a television without directly touching it.
Remote Extender: A remote extender is a device that allows you to use an Infrared (IR) remote to control a satellite
Rep Firm: Media sales representation company with offices in major advertising centers which represents statio
Repertory: Naturalist performance style in which the actor constructs a performance by selecting particular ges
Resolution: The amount of data used to make up a picture, screen, or audio track. The more data in a picture, th
Return Loss: The ratio of signal power transmitted into a system, to the power reflected or returned. This is lik
Rg-6: The type of coaxial cable recommended for digital satellite TV installations. RG-6 is a larger-size
Rg59: The coaxial cable that is commonly used for cable TV. If a home already has coaxial cable, it proba
RGB: The abbreviation for red, green and blue signals, the primary colors of light (and television). Came
Rhythm: The timing of speech, music, sound effects, or editing.
Road Blocking: The scheduling of a brand's commercial at approximately the same time on all networks, or all statio
Rotation: Scheduling of advertising in the same program or time period on different days each week (horizontal
Rotoscope: A device used in animation wherein a single frame from a live-action film is rear-projected onto a l
Royalty: A fee paid for the use of copyrighted material.
Ruling Class: Marx's term for the social class in control of a society's means of production: the class which cont
Run-Of-Schedule (ROS): Scheduling of commercials at any time of a station's choosing.
S-Video: A video signal that employs two channels: luminance (Y: namely brightness) and chrominance (C: namel
S-Video: Separated video. An encoded video signal which separates the brightness from color data. S-video can
S-Video Jack: It is a standard definition video connection normally found on directv and Dish Network receivers: i
Same Day Ratings: Nielsen Media Research term for live ratings plus DVR playback activity until 3:00 am of the same Ni
Satellite Dish: A satellite dish is used to collect signals from a satellite in orbit and focus them to the front of
Satellite Dish: Household receives transmissions from a satellite(s), via a 1- to 3- meter dish.
Satellite Home Viewer Act (SHVA): The Satellite Home Viewer Act (SHVA) was originally passed in 1988, and later amended in 1994 and 19
Satellite Master Antenna (SMATV): Serves housing complexes and hotels: signals received via satellite and distributed by coaxial cable
Satellite Station: A station that has agreed to rebroadcast the transmission of another station (generally operating in
Saturation: The concentration of a heavy amount of advertising in a short period of time in order to attain maxi
Saturation (Chroma Or Chrominance): In terms of television's image quality, the level of a color's purity (or how much or little graynes
Sbca: The SBCA (Satellite Broadcasting Communication Association) is an organization of satellite TV syste
Scan Line: Lines of glowing pixels that make up the television image. In the NTSC system used in the United Sta
Scart: Standard AV-connector used in AV equipments designed for European markets almost almost every modern
Scatter Plan: Scheduling method where the advertiser's commercials are rotated among a broadly described group of
Scene: The smallest piece of the narrative action: a single narrative event that occurs in continuous space
Schedule: A listing of the time of day and dates an advertiser's commercials are planned to run.
Scientific Method: An empirical approach which advocates developing research questions and hypotheses based on an estab
Scopitones: Produced in the 1960s, short films of performances by popular musicians presented on coin-operated m
Screen Direction: From the camera's perspective, the direction a character is looking and/or an object is moving in a
Screen Time: The duration of a program--which is normally shorter than the time represented in the program's narr
Screenplay: Generally speaking, a written description of a program, wherein the action and dialogue are describe
Secam (Sequential Color And Memory): TV system used in France and Russia (the chrominance is frequency modulated).
Secam (Systeme Electronique Couleur Avec Memoire): A signal format used in video equipment in France and the former Soviet Union. It is incompatible wi
Segue: A transition from one sound to another.
Selective Use: In the study of television stars, a use of selected parts of the star's polysemy in a particular rol
Self-Reflexivity: A program which refers back to itself or similar programs. In a genre's evolutionary pattern, the st
Semiotics: An area of television criticism that breaks down all forms of communication into individual units of
Sense Memory: Technique of method acting style in which the actor draws upon memories of physical sensations of an
Serial: A narrative form of television that presents daily/weekly episodes, with a multiple set of recurring
Series: A narrative form that presents weekly episodes, usually self-contained, with a defined set of recurr
Set Designer (Scenic Designer): Person who builds or selects elements in constructing the setting of a television program.
Set-Top Box (STB): These receivers (named because they typically sit on top of a television set) convert and display br
Sexual Politics: In feminist studies, the power relationship between men and women.
Shallow Focus: A small depth of field, with just one plane (foreground, middle-ground, or background) in focus.
Shallow Space Blocking: A type of blocking associated with multiple-camera, studio set productions, where, due to the shallo
Share: In the context of TV ratings, the percentage of homes with turned-on television sets that are tuned
Share: The percent of households (or persons) using television who are tuned to a specific program, network
Shooting Script: Generally speaking, a written description of a program, wherein each scene is described shot-by-shot
Shot-Counter Shot (Shot-Reverse Shot): An editing principle of the continuity system that alternates shots, particularly in conversation sc
Sign: In semiotics, the smallest unit of meaning--composed of a signifier and its signified.
Signified: The meaning communicated by the signifier: can be an object, a concept, a visual field, and so on.
Signifier: The physical aspect of a sign, such as ink on a page, chalk on a chalkboard, a blinking light, light
Signs Of Character: The various signifiers--viewer foreknowledge, character name, appearance, objective correlatives, di
Signs Of Performance: The actor's facial, gestural, corporeal and vocal signifiers that contribute to the development of c
Simulcast: The broadcast of programming over two separate channels or forms of media at the same time. For exam
Simulcasts: Programs, particularly in the late 1940s and early 1950s, which are simultaneously broadcast on both
Single-Camera Production: A mode of production wherein one camera operates at a time and the shots are done in the most econom
Social Actor: Real people as used in nonfiction television programs: people 'performing' according to social codes
Soft Focus: An entire image that is slightly out-of-focus.
Soft Light: A diffused light source, resulting in indistinct, blurred outlines and minimal shadows.
Soft News: News stories that examine the personal, such as gossip, scandal, murder, mayhem, and 'human interest
Solar Outage: Solar outages occur when a satellite dish is looking at a satellite, and the sun passes behind the s
Sound Bite: In a news package, a short piece of audio that was recorded on location.
Sound Editor: Technician who, in post-production, manipulates a program's soundtrack.
Sound Stage: A large room designed for the filming or videotaping of programs. Sets are arranged on the stage in
Soundies: Produced in the 1940s, short films of performances by popular musicians presented on coin-operated m
Spectrum: A range of frequencies available for over-the-air transmission.
Spill-In: The penetration of a television signal transmitted from outside the market area.
Spill-Out: The transmission of a television signal beyond its own market area.
Spinoff: When a character/characters and/or a concept from a television series is 'spun-off' to its own serie
Splitter: A splitter is a passive device or diplexer (one with no active electronic components) which distribu
Sponsorship: The purchase of all or part of a television program by one advertiser.
Spot Beam: A spot beam is a satellite transmission that is focused on a specific area within the footprint, or
Spot TV: The advertising time purchased from individual stations. There are two major types local and nationa
Stand-Up: The feature of a television news package, in which the reporter stands before a site significant to
Standard Definition Television (SDTV): SDTV refers to DIGITAL transmissions with 480-line resolution, either interlaced or progressive scan
Standard Digital Television (SDTV) Resolution: 480i - The picture is 704x480 pixels, sent at 60 interlaced frames per second (30 complete frames pe
Standard Error: The estimated standard deviation of a statistic (margin of error). Standard error of a sample mean e
Star Image: A representation of an actor that is fabricated through the media texts of promotion, publicity, tel
Steadicam: Registered trademark for a gyroscopically balanced camera mount that attaches to a camera operator's
Stereotype: A conventionalized character type that is demeaning to a particular social group.
Story Time: The amount of time that transpires within a program's narrative. See screen time.
Storyboard: A written description of a program consisting of small drawings of individual shots. When used in an
Strip: Refers to a television program aired five days a week, mainly Monday - Friday.
Stripped Syndication: A programming strategy in which syndicated shows are scheduled Monday through Friday in the same tim
Structured Polysemy: The organization and emphasis/repression of meanings within television's polysemy.
Studio Set: Three-walled, ceilingless set erected on a sound stage: this type of set is usually shallow, normall
Subject: In the contemporary psychoanalysis, the human psyche--formed chiefly through the Oedipal Complex. In
Subjective Shot: A shot wherein the camera is positioned as if it were inside a character's head, looking out of his
Subtitling: The process in which the original dialogue of a film or television program is both heard and printed
Subtractive Color: The process wherein, as white light passes through a piece of film, yellow, magenta and cyan colors
Super VGA: A common name for new PC graphics cards which are compatible with original VGA card but provide bett
Superstation: A station that provides satellite transmission of its signal to cable systems throughout the country
Superstructure: In Marxist terms, a society's ideological constructs, which grow out of its economic base.
Sw-21 Sw-44 Sw-64: These are all multi-sat switches used by DISH Network systems. The first number refers to the numbe
Sweeps: Time period during which Nielsen Media Research conducts seasonal ratings of network television prog
Sweetening: A post-production sound effects process wherein the sound technicians add more applause and laughter
Switcher: A technical device that allows a director to change between various video cameras while recording a
Symbolic Sign (Symbol): In semiotics, a type of sign in which the signifier and the signified are connected solely through c
Sync (Or Synch): The synchronization of sound and image. See lip sync.
Syndicated Program: A program that is produced for national distribution, but which is shown on individual local station
Syndication: The distribution or leasing of television programs to stations and networks by their production comp
Syntagm: In semiotics, a first level ordering of signs--e.g., in narrative television, an individual scene. T
Syntagmatic Structure: In semiotics, the manner in which signs are linearly and/or temporally organized. E.g., the batting
Take: A single shot, lasting from the starting to the stopping of the camera.
Target Audience: The audience most desired by advertisers in terms of potential product/service usage and revenue pot
Teasers: On television news, brief announcements of upcoming stories used to maintain viewer attention.
Technicolor: A type of color film process, used mostly from the late 1930s to the 1950s.
Telephoto Lens: A long focal length which creates a narrow, but magnified view of an object or person.
Telescriptions: Produced by Louis Snader in the 1950s, short films of musical performances that were marketed to tel
Television Apparatus: The combined work of all of the various factions (bankers, media corporations, directors, scriptwrit
Television Criticism: Non-empirical, analytical methods (e.g., auteurism, genre study, semiotics and feminism) employed to
Television Households: An estimate of the number of households that have one or more television sets.
Televisual: Characteristic of television.
Terrestrial Broadcasting: A broadcast signal transmitted 'over-the-air' from a ground-based transmitter to an antenna.
Text: A segment of the televisual flow, such as an individual program, a commercial, a newscast, even an e
Theatrical Film: Films originally designed to be shown in theaters, as opposed to made-for-TV films (mows).
Three Shot: As with the two shot, the conventional framing of three characters in a medium shot.
Three-Point Lighting: An aesthetic convention in which an actor or object is lit from three sources or points of light of
Threshold: The measure of sensitivity of a satellite TV system receiver measured in decibels (db).
Ticker: Information moving across the bottom of the screen--such as sports scores and weather updates.
Tilting: The action of rotating the camera up and down, on a horizontal axis in a stationary body. Tilt also
Timbre (Tone): A characteristic of television sound referring to the tonal quality of a note and/or voice.
Time Base Corrector (TBC): A TBC synchronizes video signals, allowing the signals to be locked into switcher timing.
Total Audience: Percent of households tuning to all or to any portion of a program for at least 6 minutes.
Total Survey Area (TSA): A geographic area term: includes metro area and any additional counties where a statistically signif
Track: An area along the length of recording tape (like the lanes on a highway) in a multi-track tape recor
Tracking: Any sideways or forward/backward movement of the camera dolly--sometimes on actual tracks.
Transponder: It is a satellite component that receives, modulates, amplifies, and re-broadcast a signal back to E
Treatment: A written description of a program, containing only a basic outline of the action: the first stage o
Triple Lnb: An 18' x 20' dish with three lnbs and four outputs. This dish looks at satellites in three different
Trucking (Crabbing): In television studio production, any sideways movement of the camera.
Tuner: A unit similar to today's cable boxes, which is capable of receiving and decoding DTV broadcasts. A
Tv Usage: Households Using Television (HUT) and Persons Using Television (PUT): total viewing to all televisio
Tweening: A process in animation by which frames are created that constitute a character's movement. These fra
Twin 500 LNB: A twin 500 LNB is a combination of an LNBF and a multi-sat switch component for DISH 500 systems, ac
Two Shot: The framing of two characters in a medium shot.
Typecasting: When the star image perfectly fits the character he or she portrays.
UHF Remote: Ultra High Frequency remote control that can operate the receiver from another room. An IR (Infra Re
Ultra High Frequency (UHF): An area of the broadcast spectrum that carries television signals for stations with channels 14 thro
Underscan: The picture content does not fill the whole picture tube area which means that there are borders aro
Unidirectional Microphone: A microphone that picks up sound from a specific direction.
Unique Selling Proposition (USP): Rosser Reeve's term for that certain something that distinguished one product from all the others.
Universe Estimate (UE): The population chosen for a research study. The estimated number of actual households or people from
Upconvert: The term used to describe the conversion of a lower apparent resolution to a higher number, such as
Upconverting: Process by which a standard-definition picture is changed to a simulated high definition picture.
Upfront: The first selling wave for the broadcast or cable networks, and syndication. It usually occurs in th
Uplink: A signal’s path from the earth to a satellite. Directv's uplink facility is located in Castle Rock
Uses-And-Gratifications: A research method that sees the viewer as an active user, and attempts to chart the way that viewers
Vaudeville: Anti-naturalistic performance style in which the actor reminds the viewer that the character is not
Verisimilitude: The impression of truth or reality.
Vertical Sync Frequency: The number of times per the number of times per electron beam can trace a pattern like this
Very High Frequency (VHF): An area of the broadcast spectrum that carries television signals for stations with channels 2 throu
Vesa VGA Bios Extension: A standard software interface for DOS programs (mostly games) to access higher than standard VGA res
VGA: Computer graphics card designed by IBM which has become de-facto standard in PC industry. Almost all
VHS: A popular home-use half-inch format. Not suitable for reproducing video for broadcast use.
Video Connector: The connector on the video card or computer's graphics output that the monitor cable is connected to
Video On-Demand (VOD): Allows VCR-type control of broadcast or cable programs, or video and movies offered on a PPV basis.
Videographer: The person overseeing all aspects of the video image--including lighting and the operation of the ca
Videography: The characteristics of the video camera.
Viewers In Profile (VIP): The local television ratings book from Nielsen Media Research, issued after sweeps periods for each
Viewers Per Viewing Household (VPVH): The number of viewing persons per tuning household: usually reported as 'per 1000 viewing households
Volume: How loud a sound is. One of three main characteristics of television sound. See pitch and timbre.
Waveform Monitor: An oscilloscope that measures the white and chroma levels of videotape or other video source
Weighted Average: A statistical quantity calculated by multiplying each value in a group by an assigned weight, summin
Wide Angle Lens: A focal length which generally provides a wide view of a scene and increases the illusion of depth,
Widescreen: A term given to picture displays with a wider aspect ratio than your standard analog TV. Digital HDT
Wipe: A special effect used as a transition device between scenes, in which a line moves across the screen
Wireframe: A stage in computer-generated imagery wherein the surface of objects is represented with polygonal l
Wraparound Commercial: A commercial with noncommercial material wrapped around it, such as a question about a past sports e
XGA: Extended Graphics Adapter: IBM's graphics standard that includes VGA and extended resolutions up to
Y-Pb-Pr: Designation For Hdtv Component Type Connections. Advanced method for interconnecting decoded video d
YuvYUV: The color space used by PAL and some NTSC formats (Y is the luminance and U and V are the color comp
Zoom In Or Zoom Out: A function of the zoom lens wherein the focal length is varied from wide angle to telephoto (zoom in
Zoom Lens (Variable Focal Length): A lens with a variable focal length, allowing the operator to shift immediately and continuously fro

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